From Tree-Based Generators to Delegation Networks

  • Frank Drewes
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4728)


The first part of this paper is a brief survey on tree-based generators, including some typical examples taken from the fields of string, tree, graph, and picture generation. In the second part, an extension of the tree-based generator called delegation network is proposed. Intuitively, a delegation network is a network of tree-based generators that can “delegate” subtasks to each other. In this way, different types of tree-based generators can be combined to generate complex objects.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [Ad80]
    Abelson, H., diSessa, A.: Turtle Geometry: The Computer as a Medium for Exploring Mathematics. MIT Press, Cambridge, MA (1980)Google Scholar
  2. [BC87]
    Bauderon, M., Courcelle, B.: Graph expressions and graph rewriting. Mathematical Systems Theory 20, 83–127 (1987)CrossRefMathSciNetzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  3. [CDG+02]
    Comon, H., Dauchet, M., Gilleron, R., Jacquemard, F., Lugiez, D., Tison, S., Tommasi, M.: Tree Automata Techniques and Applications (2002), Available at
  4. [Cou90]
    Courcelle, B.: Graph rewriting: an algebraic and logic approach. In: van Leeuwen, J. (ed.) Handbook of Theoretical Computer Science, vol. B, pp. 193–242. Elsevier, Amsterdam (1990)Google Scholar
  5. [DH07]
    Drewes, F., Högberg, J.: An algebra for tree-based music generation. In: Bozapalidis, S., Rahonis, G. (eds.) Proc. 2nd Intl. Conf. on Algebraic Informatics. LNCS, vol. 4728, pp. 161–173. Springer, Heidelberg (2007)Google Scholar
  6. [DK99]
    Drewes, F., Kreowski, H.-J.: Picture generation by collage grammars. In: Ehrig, H., Engels, G., Kreowski, H.-J., Rozenberg, G. (eds.) Handbook of Graph Grammars and Computing by Graph Transformation. Applications, Languages, and Tools, vol. 2, pp. 397–457. World Scientific, Singapore (1999)Google Scholar
  7. [Dre06]
    Drewes, F.: Grammatical Picture Generation – A Tree-Based Approach. In: Texts in Theoretical Computer Science. An EATCS, Springer, Heidelberg (2006)Google Scholar
  8. [Dre07]
    Drewes, F.: Delegation networks. Report UMINF 07.04, Umeå University (2007)Google Scholar
  9. [Eng80]
    Engelfriet, J.: Some open questions and recent results on tree transducers and tree languages. In: Book, R.V. (ed.) Formal Language Theory: Perspectives and Open Problems, pp. 241–286. Academic Press, London (1980)Google Scholar
  10. [Eng97]
    Engelfriet, J.: Context-free graph grammars. In: Rozenberg, G., Salomaa, A. (eds.) Handbook of Formal Languages. Beyond Words, ch. 3, vol. 3, pp. 125–213. Springer, Heidelberg (1997)Google Scholar
  11. [ES77]
    Engelfriet, J., Schmidt, E.M.: IO and OI. I. Journal of Computer and System Sciences 15, 328–353 (1977)zbMATHMathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. [ES78]
    Engelfriet, J., Schmidt, E.M.: IO and OI. II. Journal of Computer and System Sciences 16, 67–99 (1978)zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  13. [FV98]
    Fülöp, Z., Vogler, H.: Syntax-Directed Semantics: Formal Models Based on Tree Transducers. Springer, Heidelberg (1998)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  14. [GS84]
    Gécseg, F., Steinby, M.: Tree Automata. Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest (1984)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  15. [GS97]
    Gécseg, F., Steinby, M.: Tree languages. In: Rozenberg, G., Salomaa, A. (eds.) Handbook of Formal Languages. Beyond Words, ch. 1, vol. 3, pp. 1–68. Springer, Heidelberg (1997)Google Scholar
  16. [HK91]
    Habel, A., Kreowski, H.-J.: Collage grammars. In: Ehrig, H., Kreowski, H.-J., Rozenberg, G. (eds.) Graph Grammars and Their Application to Computer Science. LNCS, vol. 532, pp. 411–429. Springer, Heidelberg (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [Mai74]
    Maibaum, T.S.E.: A generalized approach to formal languages. Journal of Computer and System Sciences 8, 409–502 (1974)zbMATHMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  18. [NP92]
    Nivat, M., Podelski, A. (eds.): Tree Automata and Languages. Elsevier, Amsterdam (1992)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  19. [PHHM97]
    Prusinkiewicz, P., Hammel, M., Hanan, J., Měch, R.: Visual models of plant development. In: Rozenberg, G., Salomaa, A. (eds.) Handbook of Formal Languages. Beyond Words, vol. 3, pp. 535–597. Springer, Heidelberg (1997)Google Scholar
  20. [PL90]
    Prusinkiewicz, P., Lindenmayer, A.: The Algorithmic Beauty of Plants. Springer, Heidelberg (1990)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  21. [Rou70]
    Rounds, W.C.: Mappings and grammars on trees. Mathematical Systems Theory 4, 257–287 (1970)zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  22. [Tha73]
    Thatcher, J.W.: Tree automata: an informal survey. In: Aho, A.V. (ed.) Currents in the Theory of Computing, pp. 143–172. Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs (1973)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Frank Drewes
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Computing Science, Umeå University, S–901 87 UmeåSweden

Personalised recommendations