RNA Silencing in Mammalian Oocytes and Early Embryos

  • Petr Svoboda
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 320)


RNA silencing is a common term for homology-dependent silencing phenomena found in the majority of eukaryotic species. RNA silencing pathways share several conserved components. The common denominator of these pathways is the presence of specific, short (21–25 nt) RNA molecules generated from different double-stranded RNA substrates by a specific RNase III activity. Short RNA molecules serve as a template for sequence-specific effects including transcriptional silencing, mRNA degradation, and inhibition of translation. This review will discuss possible roles of RNA silencing pathways in mouse oocytes and early embryos as well as the use of RNA silencing for experimental inhibition of gene expression in this model system.


Enhance Green Fluorescent Protein Early Embryo Mouse Oocyte miRNA Pathway Mammalian Oocyte 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Alizadeh Z, Kageyama S, Aoki F (2005) Degradation of maternal mRNA in mouse embryos: selective degradation of specific mRNAs after fertilization. Mol Reprod Dev 72:281–290. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson P, Kedersha N (2006) RNA granules. J Cell Biol 172:803–808. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anger M, Stein P, Schultz RM (2005) CDC6 requirement for spindle formation during maturation of mouse oocytes. Biol Reprod 72:188–194. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Athanasiadis A, Rich A, Maas S (2004) Widespread A-to-I RNA editing of Alu-containing mRNAs in the human transcriptome. PLoS Biol 2:e391. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Baccetti B, Benedetto A, Collodel G, Crisá N, di Caro A, Garbuglia AR, Piomboni P (1999) Failure of HIV-1 to infect human oocytes directly. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr 21:355–361. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bachvarova R, De Leon V, Johnson A, Kaplan G, Paynton BV (1985) Changes in total RNA, polyadenylated RNA, and actin mRNA during meiotic maturation of mouse oocytes. Dev Biol 108:325–331. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bagga S, Bracht J, Hunter S, Massirer K, Holtz J, Eachus R, Pasquinelli AE (2005) Regulation by let-7 and lin-4 miRNAs results in target mRNA degradation. Cell 122:553–563. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Barber GN (2001) Host defense, viruses and apoptosis. Cell Death Differ 8:113–126. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bass BL (2002) RNA editing by adenosine deaminases that act on RNA. Annu Rev Biochem 71:817–846. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Bayne EH, Allshire RC (2005) RNA-directed transcriptional gene silencing in mammals. Trends Genet 21:370–373. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bertrand E, Zissis G, Marissens D, Gérard M, Rozenberg S, Barlow P, Delvigne A (2004) Presence of HIV-1 in follicular fluids, flushes and cumulus oophorus cells of HIV-1-seropositive women during assisted-reproduction technology. AIDS 18:823–825. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bestor TH (1999) Sex brings transposons and genomes into conflict. Genetica 107:289–295. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bielanski A, Larochelle R, Algire J, Magar R (2004) Distribution of PCV-2 DNA in the reproductive tract, oocytes and embryos of PCV-2 antibody-positive pigs. Vet Rec 155:597–598. PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Billy E, Brondani V, Zhang H, Müller U, Filipowicz W (2001) Specific interference with gene expression induced by long, double-stranded RNA in mouse embryonal teratocarcinoma cell lines. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:14428–14433. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Blow MJ, Grocock RJ, van Dongen S, Enright AJ, Dicks E, Futreal PA, Wooster R, Stratton MR (2006) RNA editing of human microRNAs. Genome Biol 7:R27. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Botquin V, Cid-Arregui A, Schlehofer JR (1994) Adeno-associated virus type 2 interferes with early development of mouse embryos. J Gen Virol 75:2655–2662. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Bourc’his D, Bestor TH (2004) Meiotic catastrophe and retrotransposon reactivation in male germ cells lacking Dnmt3L. Nature 431:96–99. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Bridge AJ, Pebernard S, Ducraux A, Nicoulaz AL, Iggo R (2003) Induction of an interferon response by RNAi vectors in mammalian cells. Nat Genet 34:263–264. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brummelkamp TR, Bernards R, Agami R (2002) A system for stable expression of short interfering RNAs in mammalian cells. Science 296:550–553. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Buchon N, Vaury C (2006) RNAi: a defensive RNA-silencing against viruses and transposable elements. Heredity 96:195–202. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Caudy AA, Ketting RF, Hammond SM, Denli AM, Bathoorn AM, Tops BB, Silva JM, Myers MM, Hannon GJ, Plasterk RH (2003) A micrococcal nuclease homologue in RNAi effector complexes. Nature 425:411–414. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Chendrimada TP, Gregory RI, Kumaraswamy E, Norman J, Cooch N, Nishikura K, Shiekhattar R (2005) TRBP recruits the Dicer complex to Ago2 for microRNA processing and gene silencing. Nature 436:740–744. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Chung KH, Hart CC, Al-Bassam S, Avery A, Taylor J, Patel PD, Vojtek AB, Turner DL (2006) Polycistronic RNA polymerase II expression vectors for RNA interference based on BIC/miR-155. Nucleic Acids Res 34:e53. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Cortez Romero C, Fieni F, Roux C, Russo P, Guibert JM, Guiguen F, Chebloune Y, Pépin M, Pellerin JL (2006) Detection of ovine lentivirus in the cumulus cells, but not in the oocytes or follicular fluid, of naturally infected sheep. Theriogenology 66:1131–1139. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Coumoul X, Shukla V, Li C, Wang RH, Deng CX (2005) Conditional knockdown of Fgfr2 in mice using Cre-LoxP induced RNA interference. Nucleic Acids Res 33:e102. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cui XS, Li XY, Jeong YJ, Jun JH, Kim NH (2006) Gene expression of cox5a, 5b, or 6b1 and their roles in preimplantation mouse embryos. Biol Reprod 74:601–610. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Cummins JM, He Y, Leary RJ, Pagliarini R, Diaz LA Jr, Sjoblom T, Barad O, Bentwich Z, Szafranska AE, Labourier E, Raymond CK, Roberts BS, Juhl H, Kinzler KW, Vogelstein B, Velculescu VE (2006) The colorectal microRNAome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 103:3687–3692. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. De La Fuente R, Viveiros MM, Wigglesworth K, Eppig JJ (2004) ATRX, a member of the SNF2 family of helicase/ATPases, is required for chromosome alignment and meiotic spindle organization in metaphase II stage mouse oocytes. Dev Biol 272:1–14. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. de Veer MJ, Sledz CA, Williams BR (2005) Detection of foreign RNA: implications for RNAi. Immunol Cell Biol 83:224–228. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Deb K, Sivaguru M, Yong HY, Roberts RM (2006) Cdx2 gene expression and trophectoderm lineage specification in mouse embryos. Science 311:992–996. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Deng W, Lin H (2002) miwi, a murine homolog of piwi, encodes a cytoplasmic protein essential for spermatogenesis. Dev Cell 2:819–830. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Devaux A, Soula V, Sifer C, Branger M, Naouri M, Porcher R, Poncelet C, Neuraz A, Alvarez S, Benifla JL, Madelenat P, Brun-Vezinet F, Feldmann G (2003) Hepatitis C virus detection in follicular fluid, culture media from HCV+ women, and viral risk during IVF procedures. Hum Reprod 18:2342–2349. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Faghihi MA, Wahlestedt C (2006) RNA interference is not involved in natural antisense mediated regulation of gene expression in mammals. Genome Biol 7:R38. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Fedoriw AM, Stein P, Svoboda P, Schultz RM, Bartolomei MS (2004) Transgenic RNAi reveals essential function for CTCF in H19 gene imprinting. Science 303:238–240. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Fire A, Xu S, Montgomery MK, Kostas SA, Driver SE, Mello CC (1998) Potent and specific genetic interference by double-stranded RNA in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature 391:806–811. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Fray MD, Prentice H, Clarke MC, Charleston B (1998) Immunohistochemical evidence for the localization of bovine viral diarrhea virus, a single-stranded RNA virus, in ovarian oocytes in the cow. Vet Pathol 35:253–259. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Fritsch L, Martinez LA, Sekhri R, Naguibneva I, Gérard M, Vandromme M, Schaeffer L, Harel-Bellan A (2004) Conditional gene knock-down by CRE-dependent short interfering RNAs. EMBO Rep 5:178–182. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gan L, Anton KE, Masterson BA, Vincent VA, Ye S, Gonzalez-Zulueta M (2002) Specific interference with gene expression and gene function mediated by long dsRNA in neural cells. J Neurosci Methods 121:151–157. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Giraldez AJ, Cinalli RM, Glasner ME, Enright AJ, Thomson JM, Baskerville S, Hammond SM, Bartel DP, Schier AF (2005) MicroRNAs regulate brain morphogenesis in zebrafish. Science 308:833–838. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Giraldez AJ, Mishima Y, Rihel J, Grocock RJ, Van Dongen S, Inoue K, Enright AJ, Schier AF (2006) Zebrafish MiR-430 promotes deadenylation and clearance of maternal mRNAs. Science 312:75–79. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Grabarek JB, Zernicka-Goetz M (2003) RNA interference in mammalian systems-a practical approach. Adv Exp Med Biol 544:205–216. PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Grabarek JB, Plusa B, Glover DM, Zernicka-Goetz M (2002) Efficient delivery of dsRNA into zona-enclosed mouse oocytes and preimplantation embryos by electroporation. Genesis 32:269–276. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Griffiths-Jones S, Grocock RJ, van Dongen S, Bateman A, Enright AJ (2006) miRBase: microRNA sequences, targets and gene nomenclature. Nucleic Acids Res 34:D140–D144. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Gui LM, Joyce IM (2005) RNA interference evidence that growth differentiation factor-9 mediates oocyte regulation of cumulus expansion in mice. Biol Reprod 72:195–199. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Haase AD, Jaskiewicz L, Zhang H, Lainé S, Sack R, Gatignol A, Filipowicz W (2005) TRBP, a regulator of cellular PKR, HIV-1 virus expression, interacts with Dicer and functions in RNA silencing. EMBO Rep 6:961–967. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hall TM (2005) Structure and function of argonaute proteins. Structure 13:1403–1408. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Han SJ, Chen R, Paronetto MP, Conti M (2005) Wee1B is an oocyte-specific kinase involved in the control of meiotic arrest in the mouse. Curr Biol 15:1670–1676. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Hata K, Sakaki Y (1997) Identification of critical CpG sites for repression of L1 transcription by DNA methylation. Gene 189:227–234. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Higuchi M, Maas S, Single FN, Hartner J, Rozov A, Burnashev N, Feldmeyer D, Sprengel R, Seeburg PH (2000) Point mutation in an AMPA receptor gene rescues lethality in mice deficient in the RNA-editing enzyme ADAR2. Nature 406:78–81. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Homer HA, McDougall A, Levasseur M, Murdoch AP, Herbert M (2005) RNA interference in meiosis I human oocytes: towards an understanding of human aneuploidy. Mol Hum Reprod 11:397–404. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Houbaviy HB, Sharp PA (2002) Small RNA Northerns suggest that RNA interference is not involved in the downregulation of Xist by Tsix. Keystone Symposia 2002, RNA Interference, Cosuppression and Related Phenomena. Taos, New Mexico. Google Scholar
  52. Houbaviy HB, Murray MF, Sharp PA (2003) Embryonic stem cell-specific MicroRNAs. Dev Cell 5:351–358. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Huang J, Fan T, Yan Q, Zhu H, Fox S, Issaq HJ, Best L, Gangi L, Munroe D, Muegge K (2004) Lsh, an epigenetic guardian of repetitive elements. Nucleic Acids Res 32:5019–5028. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Hunter T, Hunt T, Jackson RJ, Robertson HD (1975) The characteristics of inhibition of protein synthesis by double-stranded ribonucleic acid in reticulocyte lysates. J Biol Chem 250:409–417. PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Jakymiw A, Lian S, Eystathioy T, Li S, Satoh M, Hamel JC, Fritzler MJ, Chan EK (2005) Disruption of GW bodies impairs mammalian RNA interference. Nat Cell Biol 7:1267–1274. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Jurka J, Kapitonov VV, Pavlicek A, Klonowski P, Kohany O, Walichiewicz J (2005) Repbase Update, a database of eukaryotic repetitive elements. Cytogenet Genome Res 110:462–467. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kalidas S, Smith DP (2002) Novel genomic cDNA hybrids produce effective RNA interference in adult Drosophila. Neuron 33:177–184. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kalmykova AI, Klenov MS, Gvozdev VA (2005) Argonaute protein PIWI controls mobilization of retrotransposons in the Drosophila male germline. Nucleic Acids Res 33:2052–2059. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Kanellopoulou C, Muljo SA, Kung AL, Ganesan S, Drapkin R, Jenuwein T, Livingston DM, Rajewsky K (2005) Dicer-deficient mouse embryonic stem cells are defective in differentiation and centromeric silencing. Genes Dev 19:489–501. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kim SK, Wold BJ (1985) Stable reduction of thymidine kinase activity in cells expressing high levels of anti-sense RNA. Cell 42:129–138. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kim VN (2005) MicroRNA biogenesis: coordinated cropping and dicing. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 6:376–385. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kimmel CB, Ballard WW, Kimmel SR, Ullmann B, Schilling TF (1995) Stages of embryonic development of the zebrafish. Dev Dyn 203:253–310. PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Kramerov DA, Bukrinsky MI, Ryskov AP (1985) DNA sequences homologous to long double-stranded RNA, Transcription of intracisternal A-particle genes and major long repeat of the mouse genome. Biochim Biophys Acta 826:20–29. PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Lander ES, Linton LM, Birren B, Nusbaum C, Zody MC, Baldwin J, Devon K, Dewar K, Doyle M, FitzHugh W, Funke R, Gage D, Harris K, Heaford A, Howland J, Kann L, Lehoczky J, LeVine R, McEwan P, McKernan K, Meldrim J, Mesirov JP, Miranda C, Morris W, Naylor J, Raymond C, Rosetti M, Santos R, Sheridan A, Sougnez C, Stange-Thomann N, Stojanovic N, Subramanian A, Wyman D, Rogers J, Sulston J, Ainscough R, Beck S, Bentley D, Burton J, Clee C, Carter N, Coulson A, Deadman R, Deloukas P, Dunham A, Dunham I, Durbin R, French L, Grafham D, Gregory S, Hubbard T, Humphray S, Hunt A, Jones M, Lloyd C, McMurray A, Matthews L, Mercer S, Milne S, Mullikin JC, Mungall A, Plumb R, Ross M, Shownkeen R, Sims S, Waterston RH, Wilson RK, Hillier LW, McPherson JD, Marra MA, Mardis ER, Fulton LA, Chinwalla AT, Pepin KH, Gish WR, Chissoe SL, Wendl MC, Delehaunty KD, Miner TL, Delehaunty A, Kramer JB, Cook LL, Fulton RS, Johnson DL, Minx PJ, Clifton SW, Hawkins T, Branscomb E, Predki P, Richardson P, Wenning S, Slezak T, Doggett N, Cheng JF, Olsen A, Lucas S, Elkin C, Uberbacher E, Frazier M, Gibbs RA, Muzny DM, Scherer SE, Bouck JB, Sodergren EJ, Worley KC, Rives CM, Gorrell JH, Metzker ML, Naylor SL, Kucherlapati RS, Nelson DL, Weinstock GM, Sakaki Y, Fujiyama A, Hattori M, Yada T, Toyoda A, Itoh T, Kawagoe C, Watanabe H, Totoki Y, Taylor T, Weissenbach J, Heilig R, Saurin W, Artiguenave F, Brottier P, Bruls T, Pelletier E, Robert C, Wincker P, Smith DR, Doucette-Stamm L, Rubenfield M, Weinstock K, Lee HM, Dubois J, Rosenthal A, Platzer M, Nyakatura G, Taudien S, Rump A, Yang H, Yu J, Wang J, Huang G, Gu J, Hood L, Rowen L, Madan A, Qin S, Davis RW, Federspiel NA, Abola AP, Proctor MJ, Myers RM, Schmutz J, Dickson M, Grimwood J, Cox DR, Olson MV, Kaul R, Raymond C, Shimizu N, Kawasaki K, Minoshima S, Evans GA, Athanasiou M, Schultz R, Roe BA, Chen F, Pan H, Ramser J, Lehrach H, Reinhardt R, McCombie WR, de la Bastide M, Dedhia N, Blöcker H, Hornischer K, Nordsiek G, Agarwala R, Aravind L, Bailey JA, Bateman A, Batzoglou S, Birney E, Bork P, Brown DG, Burge CB, Cerutti L, Chen HC, Church D, Clamp M, Copley RR, Doerks T, Eddy SR, Eichler EE, Furey TS, Galagan J, Gilbert JG, Harmon C, Hayashizaki Y, Haussler D, Hermjakob H, Hokamp K, Jang W, Johnson LS, Jones TA, Kasif S, Kaspryzk A, Kennedy S, Kent WJ, Kitts P, Koonin EV, Korf I, Kulp D, Lancet D, Lowe TM, McLysaght A, Mikkelsen T, Moran JV, Mulder N, Pollara VJ, Ponting CP, Schuler G, Schultz J, Slater G, Smit AF, Stupka E, Szustakowski J, Thierry-Mieg D, Thierry-Mieg J, Wagner L, Wallis J, Wheeler R, Williams A, Wolf YI, Wolfe KH, Yang SP, Yeh RF, Collins F, Guyer MS, Peterson J, Felsenfeld A, Wetterstrand KA, Patrinos A, Morgan MJ, de Jong P, Catanese JJ, Osoegawa K, Shizuya H, Choi S, Chen YJ; International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium (2001) Initial sequencing and analysis of the human genome. Nature 409:860–921 Google Scholar
  65. Lazar S, Gershon E, Dekel N (2004) Selective degradation of cyclin B1 mRNA in rat oocytes by RNA interference (RNAi). J Mol Endocrinol 33:73–85. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Lee K, Fajardo MA, Braun RE (1996) A testis cytoplasmic RNA-binding protein that has the properties of a translational repressor. Mol Cell Biol 16:3023–3034. PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Lee YS, Nakahara K, Pham JW, Kim K, He Z, Sontheimer EJ, Carthew RW (2004) Distinct roles for Drosophila Dicer-1 and Dicer-2 in the siRNA/miRNA silencing pathways. Cell 117:69–81. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Lefebvre C, Terret ME, Djiane A, Rassinier P, Maro B, Verlhac MH (2002) Meiotic spindle stability depends on MAPK-interacting, spindle-stabilizing protein (MISS), a new MAPK substrate. J Cell Biol 157:603–613. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Levanon EY, Hallegger M, Kinar Y, Shemesh R, Djinovic-Carugo K, Rechavi G, Jantsch MF, Eisenberg E (2005) Evolutionarily conserved human targets of adenosine to inosine RNA editing. Nucleic Acids Res 33:1162–1168. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Lewandoski M, Wassarman KM, Martin GR (1997) Zp3-cre, transgenic mouse line for the activation or inactivation of loxP-flanked target genes specifically in the female germ line. Curr Biol 7:148–151. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Li HW, Ding SW (2005) Antiviral silencing in animals. FEBS Lett 579:5965–5973. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Lim LP, Lau NC, Garrett-Engele P, Grimson A, Schelter JM, Castle J, Bartel DP, Linsley PS, Johnson JM (2005) Microarray analysis shows that some microRNAs downregulate large numbers of target mRNAs. Nature 433:769–773. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Liu J, Carmell MA, Rivas FV, Marsden CG, Thomson JM, Song JJ, Hammond SM, Joshua-Tor L, Hannon GJ (2004) Argonaute2 is the catalytic engine of mammalian RNAi. Science 305:1437–1441. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Liu J, Rivas FV, Wohlschlegel J, Yates JR 3rd, Parker R, Hannon GJ (2005a) A role for the P-body component GW182 in microRNA function. Nat Cell Biol 7:1261–1266. PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Liu J, Valencia-Sanchez MA, Hannon GJ, Parker R (2005b) MicroRNA-dependent localization of targeted mRNAs to mammalian P-bodies. Nat Cell Biol 7:719–723. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Lois C, Hong EJ, Pease S, Brown EJ, Baltimore D (2002) Germline transmission and tissue-specific expression of transgenes delivered by lentiviral vectors. Science 295:868–872. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Lu R, Maduro M, Li F, Li HW, Broitman-Maduro G, Li WX, Ding SW (2005) Animal virus replication and RNAi-mediated antiviral silencing in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature 436:1040–1043. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Ma J, Zeng F, Schultz RM, Tseng H (2006) Basonuclin: a novel mammalian maternal-effect gene. Development 133:2053–2062. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Maas S, Rich A, Nishikura K (2003) A-to-I RNA editing: recent news and residual mysteries. J Biol Chem 278:1391–1394. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Martens JH, O’Sullivan RJ, Braunschweig U, Opravil S, Radolf M, Steinlein P, Jenuwein T (2005) The profile of repeat-associated histone lysine methylation states in the mouse epigenome. EMBO J 24:800–812. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Matranga C, Tomari Y, Shin C, Bartel DP, Zamore PD (2005) Passenger-strand cleavage facilitates assembly of siRNA into Ago2-containing RNAi enzyme complexes. Cell 123:607–620. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Matzke MA, Birchler JA (2005) RNAi-mediated pathways in the nucleus. Nat Rev Genet 6:24–35. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. McManus MT, Petersen CP, Haines BB, Chen J, Sharp PA (2002) Gene silencing using micro-RNA designed hairpins. Rna 8:842–850. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. McMillan NA, Carpick BW, Hollis B, Toone WM, Zamanian-Daryoush M, Williams BR (1995) Mutational analysis of the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) binding domain of the dsRNA-activated protein kinase, PKR. J Biol Chem 270:2601–2606. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Mehlmann LM (2005) Oocyte-specific expression of Gpr3 is required for the maintenance of meiotic arrest in mouse oocytes. Dev Biol 288:397–404. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Meister G, Landthaler M, Patkaniowska A, Dorsett Y, Teng G, Tuschl T (2004) Human Argonaute2 mediates RNA cleavage targeted by miRNAs and siRNAs. Mol Cell 15:185–197. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Mellitzer G, Hallonet M, Chen L, Ang SL (2002) Spatial and temporal ‘knock down’ of gene expression by electroporation of double-stranded RNA and morpholinos into early postimplantation mouse embryos. Mech Dev 118:57–63. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Mineno J, Okamoto S, Ando T, Sato M, Chono H, Izu H, Takayama M, Asada K, Mirochnitchenko O, Inouye M, Kato I (2006) The expression profile of microRNAs in mouse embryos. Nucleic Acids Res 34:1765–1771. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Morris KV, Chan SW, Jacobsen SE, Looney DJ (2004) Small interfering RNA-induced transcriptional gene silencing in human cells. Science 305:1289–1292. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Morse DP, Bass BL (1999) Long RNA hairpins that contain inosine are present in Caenorhabditis elegans poly(A)+ RNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:6048–6053. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Morse DP, Aruscavage PJ, Bass BL (2002) RNA hairpins in noncoding regions of human brain and Caenorhabditis elegans mRNA are edited by adenosine deaminases that act on RNA. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:7906–7911. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Murchison EP, Partridge JF, Tam OH, Cheloufi S, Hannon GJ (2005) Characterization of Dicer-deficient murine embryonic stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:12135–12140. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Murchison EP, Stein P, Xuan Z, Pan H, Zhang MQ, Schultz RM, Hannon GJ (2007) Critical roles for Dicer in the female germline. Genes Dev 21:682–693. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Newbury SF, Muhlemann O, Stoecklin G (2006) Turnover in the Alps: an mRNA perspective: Workshops on mechanisms and regulation of mRNA turnover. EMBO Rep 7:143–148. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Nganvongpanit K, Müller H, Rings F, Hoelker M, Jennen D, Tholen E, Havlicek V, Besenfelder U, Schellander K, Tesfaye D (2006) Selective degradation of maternal and embryonic transcripts in in vitro produced bovine oocytes and embryos using sequence specific double-stranded RNA. Reproduction 131:861–874. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Oh B, Hwang S, McLaughlin J, Solter D, Knowles BB (2000) Timely translation during the mouse oocyte-to-embryo transition. Development 127:3795–3803. PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. Okano H, Aruga J, Nakagawa T, Shiota C, Mikoshiba K (1991) Myelin basic protein gene and the function of antisense RNA in its repression in myelin-deficient mutant mouse. J Neurochem 56:560–567. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Ong CL, Thorpe JC, Gorry PR, Bannwarth S, Jaworowski A, Howard JL, Chung S, Campbell S, Christensen HS, Clerzius G, Mouland AJ, Gatignol A, Purcell DF (2005) Low TRBP levels support an innate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 resistance in astrocytes by enhancing the PKR antiviral response. J Virol 79:12763–12772. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Paddison PJ, Caudy AA, Bernstein E, Hannon GJ, Conklin DS (2002) Short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) induce sequence-specific silencing in mammalian cells. Genes Dev 16:948–958. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Palladino MJ, Keegan LP, O’Connell MA, Reenan RA (2000) A-to-I pre-mRNA editing in Drosophila is primarily involved in adult nervous system function and integrity. Cell 102:437–449. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Papaxanthos-Roche A, Trimoulet P, Commenges-Ducos M, Hocké C, Fleury HJ, Mayer G (2004) PCR-detected hepatitis C virus RNA associated with human zona-intact oocytes collected from infected women for ART. Hum Reprod 19:1170–1175. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Park CE, Shin MR, Jeon EH, Lee SH, Cha KY, Kim K, Kim NH, Lee KA (2004) Oocyte-selective expression of MT transposon-like element, clone MTi7 and its role in oocyte maturation and embryo development. Mol Reprod Dev 69:365–374. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Park H, Davies MV, Langland JO, Chang HW, Nam YS, Tartaglia J, Paoletti E, Jacobs BL, Kaufman RJ, Venkatesan S (1994) TAR RNA-binding protein is an inhibitor of the interferon-induced protein kinase PKR. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 91:4713–4717. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Paronetto MP, Giorda E, Carsetti R, Rossi P, Geremia R, Sette C (2004) Functional interaction between p90Rsk2 and Emi1 contributes to the metaphase arrest of mouse oocytes. EMBO J 23:4649–4659. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Paynton BV, Rempel R, Bachvarova R (1988) Changes in state of adenylation and time course of degradation of maternal mRNAs during oocyte maturation and early embryonic development in the mouse. Dev Biol 129:304–314. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Peaston AE, Evsikov AV, Graber JH, de Vries WN, Holbrook AE, Solter D, Knowles BB (2004) Retrotransposons regulate host genes in mouse oocytes and preimplantation embryos. Dev Cell 7:597–606. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Piko L, Hammons MD, Taylor KD (1984) Amounts, synthesis, and some properties of intracisternal A particle-related RNA in early mouse embryos. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 81:488–492. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Pillai RS, Artus CG, Filipowicz W (2004) Tethering of human Ago proteins to mRNA mimics the miRNA-mediated repression of protein synthesis. Rna 10:1518–1525. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Pillai RS, Bhattacharyya SN, Artus CG, Zoller T, Cougot N, Basyuk E, Bertrand E, Filipowicz W (2005) Inhibition of translational initiation by Let-7 MicroRNA in human cells. Science 309:1573–1576. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Plusa B, Frankenberg S, Chalmers A, Hadjantonakis AK, Moore CA, Papalopulu N, Papaioannou VE, Glover DM, Zernicka-Goetz M (2005) Downregulation of Par3 and aPKC function directs cells towards the ICM in the preimplantation mouse embryo. J Cell Sci 118:505–515. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Prasanth KV, Prasanth SG, Xuan Z, Hearn S, Freier SM, Bennett CF, Zhang MQ, Spector DL (2005) Regulating gene expression through RNA nuclear retention. Cell 123:249–263. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Prawitt D, Brixel L, Spangenberg C, Eshkind L, Heck R, Oesch F, Zabel B, Bockamp E (2004) RNAi knock-down mice: an emerging technology for post-genomic functional genetics. Cytogenet Genome Res 105:412–421. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Puschendorf M, Stein P, Oakeley EJ, Schultz RM, Peters AH, Svoboda P (2006) Abundant transcripts from retrotransposons are unstable in fully grown mouse oocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 347:36–43. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Rehwinkel J, Behm-Ansmant I, Gatfield D, Izaurralde E (2005) A crucial role for GW182 and the DCP1:DCP2 decapping complex in miRNA-mediated gene silencing. Rna 11:1640–1647. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Richoux V, Panthier JJ, Salmon AM, Condamine H (1989) Acquisition of endogenous ecotropic MuLV can occur before the late one-cell stage in the genital tract of SWR/J-RF/J hybrid females. J Exp Zool 252:96–100. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Sakurai T, Sato M, Kimura M (2005) Diverse patterns of poly(A) tail elongation and shortening of murine maternal mRNAs from fully grown oocyte to 2-cell embryo stages. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 336:1181–1189. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Saumet A, Lecellier CH (2006) Anti-viral RNA silencing: do we look like plants? Retrovirology 3:3. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Scadden AD (2005) The RISC subunit Tudor-SN binds to hyper-edited double-stranded RNA and promotes its cleavage. Nat Struct Mol Biol 12:489–496. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Schmitt HP, Kuhn B, Alonso A (1986) Characterization of cloned sequences complementary to F9 cell double-stranded RNA and their expression during differentiation. Differentiation 30:205–210. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Schultz RM (2002) The molecular foundations of the maternal to zygotic transition in the preimplantation embryo. Hum Reprod Update 8:323–331. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Seibler J, Küter-Luks B, Kern H, Streu S, Plum L, Mauer J, Kühn R, Brüning JC, Schwenk F (2005) Single copy shRNA configuration for ubiquitous gene knockdown in mice. Nucleic Acids Res 33:e67. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Shendure J, Church GM (2002) Computational discovery of sense-antisense transcription in the human and mouse genomes. Genome Biol 3:RESEARCH0044.Google Scholar
  123. Sijen T, Fleenor J, Simmer F, Thijssen KL, Parrish S, Timmons L, Plasterk RH, Fire A (2001) On the role of RNA amplification in dsRNA-triggered gene silencing. Cell 107:465–476. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Soares ML, Haraguchi S, Torres-Padilla ME, Kalmar T, Carpenter L, Bell G, Morrison A, Ring CJ, Clarke NJ, Glover DM, Zernicka-Goetz M (2005) Functional studies of signaling pathways in peri-implantation development of the mouse embryo by RNAi. BMC Dev Biol 5:28. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Song JJ, Smith SK, Hannon GJ, Joshua-Tor L (2004) Crystal structure of Argonaute and its implications for RISC slicer activity. Science 305:1434–1437. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. Sontheimer EJ (2005) Assembly and function of RNA silencing complexes. Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 6:127–138. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Sontheimer EJ, Carthew RW (2005) Silence from within: endogenous siRNAs and miRNAs. Cell 122:9–12. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Srivastava SP, Kumar KU, Kaufman RJ (1998) Phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 mediates apoptosis in response to activation of the double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase. J Biol Chem 273:2416–2423. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Stegmeier F, Hu G, Rickles RJ, Hannon GJ, Elledge SJ (2005) A lentiviral microRNA-based system for single-copy polymerase II-regulated RNA interference in mammalian cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:13212–13217. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Stein P, Svoboda P (2003) Guide to RNAi in mouse oocytes and preimplantation embryos. In: Hannon J (ed) RNAi: A guide to gene silencing. Cold Spring Harbor Press, Cold Spring Harbor, pp 313–343. Google Scholar
  131. Stein P, Svoboda P, Anger M, Schultz RM (2003a) RNAi: mammalian oocytes do it without RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Rna 9:187–192. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Stein P, Svoboda P, Schultz RM (2003b) Transgenic RNAi in mouse oocytes: a simple and fast approach to study gene function. Dev Biol 256:187–193. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Stein P, Zeng F, Pan H, Schultz RM (2005) Absence of non-specific effects of RNA interference triggered by long double-stranded RNA in mouse oocytes. Dev Biol 286:464–471. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Su AI, Cooke MP, Ching KA, Hakak Y, Walker JR, Wiltshire T, Orth AP, Vega RG, Sapinoso LM, Moqrich A, Patapoutian A, Hampton GM, Schultz PG, Hogenesch JB (2002) Large-scale analysis of the human and mouse transcriptomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:4465–4470. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. Suh MR, Lee Y, Kim JY, Kim SK, Moon SH, Lee JY, Cha KY, Chung HM, Yoon HS, Moon SY, Kim VN, Kim KS (2004) Human embryonic stem cells express a unique set of microRNAs. Dev Biol 270:488–498. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Svoboda P (2004) Long dsRNA and silent genes strike back: RNAi in mouse oocytes and early embryos. Cytogenet Genome Res 105:422–434. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Svoboda P, Cara AD (2006) Hairpin RNA: a secondary structure of primary importance. Cell Mol Life Sci 63:901–908. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Svoboda P, Stein P, Hayashi H, Schultz RM (2000) Selective reduction of dormant maternal mRNAs in mouse oocytes by RNA interference. Development 127:4147–4156. PubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. Svoboda P, Stein P, Schultz RM (2001) RNAi in mouse oocytes and preimplantation embryos: effectiveness of Hairpin dsRNA. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 287:1099–1104. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Svoboda P, Stein P, Anger M, Bernstein E, Hannon GJ, Schultz RM (2004a) RNAi and expression of retrotransposons MuERV-L and IAP in preimplantation mouse embryos. Dev Biol 269:276–285. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. Svoboda P, Stein P, Filipowicz W, Schultz RM (2004b) Lack of homologous sequence-specific DNA methylation in response to stable dsRNA expression in mouse oocytes. Nucleic Acids Res 32:3601–3606. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. Tabara H, Sarkissian M, Kelly WG, Fleenor J, Grishok A, Timmons L, Fire A, Mello CC (1999) The rde-1 gene, RNA interference, transposon silencing in C. elegans. Cell 99:123–132. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. Tang F, Kaneda M, O’Carroll D, Hajkova P, Barton SC, Sun YA, Lee C, Tarakhovsky A, Lao K, Surani MA (2007) Maternal microRNAs are essential for mouse zygotic development. Genes Dev 21:644–648. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. Tavernarakis N, Wang SL, Dorovkov M, Ryazanov A, Driscoll M (2000) Heritable and inducible genetic interference by double-stranded RNA encoded by transgenes. Nat Genet 24:180–183. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. Tebourbi L, Testart J, Cerutti I, Moussu JP, Loeuillet A, Courtot AM (2002) Failure to infect embryos after virus injection in mouse zygotes. Hum Reprod 17:760–764. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. Terret ME, Lefebvre C, Djiane A, Rassinier P, Moreau J, Maro B, Verlhac MH (2003) DOC1R: a MAP kinase substrate that control microtubule organization of metaphase II mouse oocytes. Development 130:5169–5177. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. Tijsterman M, Okihara KL, Thijssen K, Plasterk RH (2002) PPW-1, a PAZ/PIWI protein required for efficient germline RNAi is defective in a natural isolate of C. elegans. Curr Biol 12:1535. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. Ting AH, Schuebel KE, Herman JG, Baylin SB (2005) Short double-stranded RNA induces transcriptional gene silencing in human cancer cells in the absence of DNA methylation. Nat Genet 37:906–910. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. Tonkin LA, Bass BL (2003) Mutations in RNAi rescue aberrant chemotaxis of ADAR mutants. Science 302:1725. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. Tonkin LA, Saccomanno L, Morse DP, Brodigan T, Krause M, Bass BL (2002) RNA editing by ADARs is important for normal behavior in Caenorhabditis elegans. EMBO J 21:6025–6035. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. Tsuboi T, Bielanski A (2005) Resistance of immature bovine oocytes to non-cytopathogenic bovine viral diarrhoea virus in vitro. Vet Rec 156:546–548. PubMedGoogle Scholar
  152. Valencia-Sanchez MA, Liu J, Hannon GJ, Parker R (2006) Control of translation and mRNA degradation by miRNAs and siRNAs. Genes Dev 20:515–524. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. van de Wetering M, Oving I, Muncan V, Pon Fong MT, Brantjes H, van Leenen D, Holstege FC, Brummelkamp TR, Agami R, Clevers H (2003) Specific inhibition of gene expression using a stably integrated, inducible small-interfering-RNA vector. EMBO Rep 4:609–615. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. Verdel A, Moazed D (2005) RNAi-directed assembly of heterochromatin in fission yeast. FEBS Lett 579:5872–5878. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. Walsh CP, Chaillet JR, Bestor TH (1998) Transcription of IAP endogenous retroviruses is constrained by cytosine methylation. Nat Genet 20:116–117. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. Wang J, Tekle E, Oubrahim H, Mieyal JJ, Stadtman ER, Chock PB (2003) Stable and controllable RNA interference: investigating the physiological function of glutathionylated actin. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100:5103–5106. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. Wang Q, Carmichael GG (2004) Effects of length and location on the cellular response to double-stranded RNA. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 68:432–452. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. Wang Q, Khillan J, Gadue P, Nishikura K (2000) Requirement of the RNA editing deaminase ADAR1 gene for embryonic erythropoiesis. Science 290:1765–1768. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. Wang XH, Aliyari R, Li WX, Li HW, Kim K, Carthew R, Atkinson P, Ding SW (2006) RNA interference directs innate immunity against viruses in adult Drosophila. Science 312:452–454. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. Watanabe T, Takeda A, Mise K, Okuno T, Suzuki T, Minami N, Imai H (2005) Stage-specific expression of microRNAs during Xenopus development. FEBS Lett 579:318–324. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. Watanabe T, Takeda A, Tsukiyama T, Mise K, Okuno T, Sasaki H, Minami N, Imai H (2006) Identification and characterization of two novel classes of small RNAs in the mouse germline: retrotransposon-derived siRNAs in oocytes and germline small RNAs in testes. Genes Dev 20:1732–1743. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. Waterston RH, Lindblad-Toh K, Birney E, Rogers J, Abril JF, Agarwal P, Agarwala R, Ainscough R, Alexandersson M, An P, Antonarakis SE, Attwood J, Baertsch R, Bailey J, Barlow K, Beck S, Berry E, Birren B, Bloom T, Bork P, Botcherby M, Bray N, Brent MR, Brown DG, Brown SD, Bult C, Burton J, Butler J, Campbell RD, Carninci P, Cawley S, Chiaromonte F, Chinwalla AT, Church DM, Clamp M, Clee C, Collins FS, Cook LL, Copley RR, Coulson A, Couronne O, Cuff J, Curwen V, Cutts T, Daly M, David R, Davies J, Delehaunty KD, Deri J, Dermitzakis ET, Dewey C, Dickens NJ, Diekhans M, Dodge S, Dubchak I, Dunn DM, Eddy SR, Elnitski L, Emes RD, Eswara P, Eyras E, Felsenfeld A, Fewell GA, Flicek P, Foley K, Frankel WN, Fulton LA, Fulton RS, Furey TS, Gage D, Gibbs RA, Glusman G, Gnerre S, Goldman N, Goodstadt L, Grafham D, Graves TA, Green ED, Gregory S, Guigó R, Guyer M, Hardison RC, Haussler D, Hayashizaki Y, Hillier LW, Hinrichs A, Hlavina W, Holzer T, Hsu F, Hua A, Hubbard T, Hunt A, Jackson I, Jaffe DB, Johnson LS, Jones M, Jones TA, Joy A, Kamal M, Karlsson EK, Karolchik D, Kasprzyk A, Kawai J, Keibler E, Kells C, Kent WJ, Kirby A, Kolbe DL, Korf I, Kucherlapati RS, Kulbokas EJ, Kulp D, Landers T, Leger JP, Leonard S, Letunic I, Levine R, Li J, Li M, Lloyd C, Lucas S, Ma B, Maglott DR, Mardis ER, Matthews L, Mauceli E, Mayer JH, McCarthy M, McCombie WR, McLaren S, McLay K, McPherson JD, Meldrim J, Meredith B, Mesirov JP, Miller W, Miner TL, Mongin E, Montgomery KT, Morgan M, Mott R, Mullikin JC, Muzny DM, Nash WE, Nelson JO, Nhan MN, Nicol R, Ning Z, Nusbaum C, O’Connor MJ, Okazaki Y, Oliver K, Overton-Larty E, Pachter L, Parra G, Pepin KH, Peterson J, Pevzner P, Plumb R, Pohl CS, Poliakov A, Ponce TC, Ponting CP, Potter S, Quail M, Reymond A, Roe BA, Roskin KM, Rubin EM, Rust AG, Santos R, Sapojnikov V, Schultz B, Schultz J, Schwartz MS, Schwartz S, Scott C, Seaman S, Searle S, Sharpe T, Sheridan A, Shownkeen R, Sims S, Singer JB, Slater G, Smit A, Smith DR, Spencer B, Stabenau A, Stange-Thomann N, Sugnet C, Suyama M, Tesler G, Thompson J, Torrents D, Trevaskis E, Tromp J, Ucla C, Ureta-Vidal A, Vinson JP, Von Niederhausern AC, Wade CM, Wall M, Weber RJ, Weiss RB, Wendl MC, West AP, Wetterstrand K, Wheeler R, Whelan S, Wierzbowski J, Willey D, Williams S, Wilson RK, Winter E, Worley KC, Wyman D, Yang S, Yang SP, Zdobnov EM, Zody MC, Lander ES (2002) Initial sequencing and comparative analysis of the mouse genome. Nature 420:520–562. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. Wesley SV, Helliwell CA, Smith NA, Wang MB, Rouse DT, Liu Q, Gooding PS, Singh SP, Abbott D, Stoutjesdijk PA, Robinson SP, Gleave AP, Green AG, Waterhouse PM (2001) Construct design for efficient, effective and high-throughput gene silencing in plants. Plant J 27:581–590. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. Wianny F, Zernicka-Goetz M (2000) Specific interference with gene function by double-stranded RNA in early mouse development. Nat Cell Biol 2:70–75. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. Wienholds E, Koudijs MJ, van Eeden FJ, Cuppen E, Plasterk RH (2003) The microRNA-producing enzyme Dicer1 is essential for zebrafish development. Nat Genet 35:217–218. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. Wienholds E, Kloosterman WP, Miska E, Alvarez-Saavedra E, Berezikov E, de Bruijn E, Horvitz HR, Kauppinen S, Plasterk RH (2005) MicroRNA expression in zebrafish embryonic development. Science 309:310–311. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. Wilkins C, Dishongh R, Moore SC, Whitt MA, Chow M, Machaca K (2005) RNA interference is an antiviral defence mechanism in Caenorhabditis elegans. Nature 436:1044–1047. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. Wooddell CI, Van Hout CV, Reppen T, Lewis DL, Herweijer H (2005) Long-term RNA interference from optimized siRNA expression constructs in adult mice. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 334:117–127. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. Xia XG, Zhou H, Samper E, Melov S, Xu Z (2006) Pol II-expressed shRNA knocks down Sod2 gene expression and causes phenotypes of the gene knockout in mice. PLoS Genet 2:e10. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. Xu Z, Williams CJ, Kopf GS, Schultz RM (2003) Maturation-associated increase in IP3 receptor type 1: role in conferring increased IP3 sensitivity and Ca2+ oscillatory behavior in mouse eggs. Dev Biol 254:163–171. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. Yang S, Tutton S, Pierce E, Yoon K (2001) Specific double-stranded RNA interference in undifferentiated mouse embryonic stem cells. Mol Cell Biol 21:7807–7816. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. Yang W, Wang Q, Howell KL, Lee JT, Cho DS, Murray JM, Nishikura K (2005) ADAR1 RNA deaminase limits short interfering RNA efficacy in mammalian cells. J Biol Chem 280:3946–3953. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. Yang W, Chendrimada TP, Wang Q, Higuchi M, Seeburg PH, Shiekhattar R, Nishikura K (2006) Modulation of microRNA processing and expression through RNA editing by ADAR deaminases. Nat Struct Mol Biol 13:13–21. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. Yekta S, Shih IH, Bartel DP (2004) MicroRNA-directed cleavage of HOXB8 mRNA. Science 304:594–596. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. Yelin R, Dahary D, Sorek R, Levanon EY, Goldstein O, Shoshan A, Diber A, Biton S, Tamir Y, Khosravi R, Nemzer S, Pinner E, Walach S, Bernstein J, Savitsky K, Rotman G (2003) Widespread occurrence of antisense transcription in the human genome. Nat Biotechnol 21:379–386. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. Yu J, Deng M, Medvedev S, Yang J, Hecht NB, Schultz RM (2004) Transgenic RNAi-mediated reduction of MSY2 in mouse oocytes results in reduced fertility. Dev Biol 268:195–206. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. Yu JY, DeRuiter SL, Turner DL (2002) RNA interference by expression of short-interfering RNAs and hairpin RNAs in mammalian cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:6047–6052. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. Zamore PD, Haley B (2005) Ribo-gnome: the big world of small RNAs. Science 309:1519–1524. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. Zeng F, Schultz RM (2005) RNA transcript profiling during zygotic gene activation in the preimplantation mouse embryo. Dev Biol 283:40–57. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. Zeng F, Baldwin DA, Schultz RM (2004) Transcript profiling during preimplantation mouse development. Dev Biol 272:483–496. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. Zeng Y, Wagner EJ, Cullen BR (2002) Both natural and designed micro RNAs can inhibit the expression of cognate mRNAs when expressed in human cells. Mol Cell 9:1327–1333. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. Zhong J, Peters AH, Lee K, Braun RE (1999) A double-stranded RNA binding protein required for activation of repressed messages in mammalian germ cells. Nat Genet 22:171–174. PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Petr Svoboda
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Molecular GeneticsCzech Academy of SciencesPragueCzech Republic

Personalised recommendations