Advertisement

The Role of Insect Herbivores in Exotic Plant Invasions: Insights Using a Combination of Methods to Enhance or Reduce Herbivory

  • W. E. Rogers
  • E. Siemann
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 173)

Abstract

Exotic plant invasions are threatening biodiversity and altering fundamental ecosystem properties and processes worldwide. Escape from native insect herbivores is believed to be one of the primary causes contributing to the successful invasion of many introduced plants. With biotic homogenization increasing globally, studies that examine the effects of herbivores on both native and introduced species are essential for understanding the influence of exotic species invasions on community dynamics and ecosystem function. While collecting field observations and life history characteristics of an exotic plant can be useful, it is experimental manipulations that will most clearly reveal the mechanisms responsible for the dominance of an aggressive invasive species. Employing a variety of methodological approaches that both increase and decrease insect herbivory will best elucidate the population ecology and ecosystem impact of an exotic plant invader. There is a pressing need to develop effective management strategies to lessen the effects of exotic invaders on a variety of threatened species and imperiled ecosystems. Such experiments will not only increase basic ecological knowledge, but also provide useful insights to land managers pressed with addressing a large and growing problem with tremendous societal, economic and environmental costs.

Keywords

Insect Herbivore Exotic Plant Common Garden Exotic Plant Species Native Genotype 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aarssen LW, Epp GA (1990) Neighbor manipulations in natural vegetation: a review. J Veg Sci 1: 13 – 30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abrahamson WG, Weis AE (1997) Evolutionary ecology across three trophic levels: goldenrods, gallmakers, and natural enemies. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJGoogle Scholar
  3. Agrawal AA (1998) Induced responses to herbivory and increased plant performance. Science 279: 1201 – 1202PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Agrawal AA (2000). Benefits and costs of induced plant defense for Lepidium virginicum (Brassicaceae). Ecology 81: 1804 – 1813CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Alpert P, Bone E, Holzapfel C (2000) Invasiveness, invasibility and the role of environmental stress in the spread of non-native plants. Perspect Plant Ecol Evol Syst 3: 52 – 66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Andersen DC (1987) Below-ground herbivory in natural communities: a review emphasizing fossorial animals. Q Rev Biol 62: 261 – 286CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Baldwin IT (1990) Herbivory simulations in ecological research. Trends Ecol Evol 5: 91 – 93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baldwin IT (1998) Jasmonate-induced responses are costly but benefit plants under attack in native populations. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95: 8113 – 8118PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Barrett SCH, Richardson BJ (1986) Genetic attributes of invading species. In: Groves RH, Burdon JJ (eds) Ecology of biological invasions. Cambridge University Press, Melbourne, Australia, pp 21 – 33Google Scholar
  10. Basset Y (2001) Invertebrates in the canopy of tropical rain forests: how much do we really know? Plant Ecol 153: 87 – 107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bazzaz FA, Chiariello NR, Coley PD, Pitelka LF (1987) Allocating resources to reproduction and defense. BioScience 37: 58 – 67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Beccaloni GW, Symons FB (2000) Variation of butterfly diet breadth in relation to host-plant predictability: results from two faunas. Oikos 90: 50 – 66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Belovsky GE (1986) Optimal foraging and community structure: implications for a guild of generalist grassland herbivores. Oecologia 70: 35 – 52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Bernays EA (2001) Neural limitations in phytophagous insects: implications for diet breadth and evolution of host affiliation. Annu Rev Entomol 46: 703 – 727PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Bernays EA, Chapman RF (1994) Host-plant selection by phytophagous insects. Chapman and Hall, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Blossey B (1993) Herbivory below ground and biological weed control: life history of a root-boring weevil on purple loosestrife. Oecologia 94: 380 – 387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Blossey B, Nötzold R (1995) Evolution of increased competitive ability in invasive non-indigenous plants: a hypothesis. J Ecol 83: 887 – 889CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Brown JH, Heske EJ (1990) Control of a desert grassland transition by a keystone rodent guild. Science 250: 1705 – 1708PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Brown VK, Gange AC (1990) Insect herbivory below ground. Adv Ecol Res 20: 1 – 58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Brown VK, Jepsen M, Gibson CWD (1988) Insect herbivory: effects on early oldfield succession demonstrated by chemical exclusion methods. Oikos 52: 293 – 302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Bruce KA, Cameron GN, Harcombe PA (1995) Initiation of a new woodland type on the Texas Coastal Prairie by the Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum ( L.) Roxb.). Bull Torr Bot Club 122: 215–225Google Scholar
  22. Bruce KA, Cameron GN, Harcombe PA, Jubinsky G (1997) Introduction, impact on native habitats, and management of a woody invader, the Chinese tallow tree, Sapium sebiferum ( L. ). Natl Areas J 17: 255–260Google Scholar
  23. Cabin RJ, Weller SG, Lorence DH, Cordell S, Hadway LJ, Montgomery R., Goo D, Urakami A (2002) Effects of light, alien grass, and native species additions on Hawaiian dry forest restoration. Ecol Appl 12: 1595 – 1610CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Camara MD (1997) A recent host range expansion in Junonia coenia Hubner (Nymphalidae): oviposition preference, survival, growth, and chemical defense. Evolution 51: 873 – 884CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Carson WP, Root RB (1999) Top-down effects of insect herbivores during early succession: influence on biomass and plant dominance. Oecologia 121: 260 – 272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Carson WP, Root RB (2000) Herbivory and plant species coexistence: community regulation by an outbreaking phytophagous insect. Ecol Monogr 70: 73 – 99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Chapin FS, Zavaleta ES, Eviner VT, Naylor RL, Vitousek PM, Reynolds HL, Hooper DU, Lavorel S, Sala OE, Hobbie SE, Mack MC, Diaz S (2000) Consequences of changing biodiversity. Nature 405: 234 – 242PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Chew FS, Courtney SP (199 1) Plant apparency and evolutionary escape from insect herbivory.Am Nat 138:729–750Google Scholar
  29. Coblentz BE (1990) Exotic organisms: a dilemma for conservation biology. Conserv Biol 4: 261 – 265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Coley PD, Bryant JP, Chapin FS (1985) Resource availability and plant antiherbivore defense. Science 230: 895 – 899PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Connell JH (1961) The influence of interspecific competition and other factors on the distribution of the barnacle Chthamalus stellatus. Ecology 42: 710 – 723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Crawley MJ (1989) Insect herbivores and plant population dynamics. Annu Rev Entomol 34: 531 – 564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Crawley MJ (1997) Plant–herbivore dynamics. In: Crawley MJ (ed) Plant ecology, 2nd edn. Blackwell, Oxford, pp 401 – 474Google Scholar
  34. Daehler CC (2003) Performance comparisons of co-occurring native and alien invasive plants: implications for conservation and restoration. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 34: 183 – 211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. D’Antonio CD, Hughes RF, Mack M, Hitchcock D, Vitousek PM (1998) The response of native species removal of invasive exotic grasses in a seasonally dry Hawaiian woodland. J Veg Sci 9: 699 – 712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Detling JD, Winn T, Procter-Gregg C, Painter EL (1980) Effects of simulated grazing by below-ground herbivores on growth, CO2 exchange, and carbon allocation patterns of Bouteloua gracilis. J Appl Ecol 17: 771 – 778CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. DeWalt SJ, Denslow JS, Ickes K (2004) Natural enemy release facilitates habitat expansion of the invasive tropical shrub Clidemia hirta. Ecology 85: 471 – 483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Elton CS (1958) The ecology of invasion by plants and animals. Chapman and Hall, LondonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Erwin TL (1982) Tropical forests: their richness in Coleoptera and other arthropod species. Coleopt Bull 36: 74 – 75Google Scholar
  40. Feeny P (1975) Biochemical coevolution between plants and their insect herbivores. In: Gilbert LE, Raven PH (eds) Coevolution of animals and plants. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas, pp 3 - 19Google Scholar
  41. Fenner M (1987) Seedlings. Can J Bot 106: 35 – 47Google Scholar
  42. Goldberg DE, Barton AM (1992) Patterns and consequences of interspecific competition in natural communities: a review of field experiments with plants. Am Nat 139:771– 801Google Scholar
  43. Grace JB (1998) Can prescribed fire save the endangered coastal prairie ecosystem from Chinese tallow invasion? Endangered Species Update 15: 70 – 76Google Scholar
  44. Grover JP (1994) Assembly rules for communities of nutrient-limited plants and specialist herbivores.Am Nat 143: 258 – 282Google Scholar
  45. Groves RH (1989) Ecological control of invasive terrestrial plants. In: Drake JA, Mooney HA, di Castri F, Groves RH, Kruger FJ, Rejmanek M, Williamson MW (eds) Biological invasions. Wiley, New York, pp 437 – 462Google Scholar
  46. Hairston NG, Smith FE, Slobotkin LB (1960) Community structure, population control and competition.Am Nat 94: 421 – 425Google Scholar
  47. Hendrix SD (1988) Herbivory and its impact on plant reproduction. In: Lovett-Doust J, Lovett-Doust L (eds) Plant reproductive ecology: patterns and strategies. Oxford University Press, New York, pp 246 – 263Google Scholar
  48. Herms DA, Mattson WJ (1992) The dilemma of plants: to grow or to defend. Q Rev Biol 67: 283 – 335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Houle G, Simard G (1996) Additive effects of genotype, nutrient availability and type of tissue damage on the compensatory response of Salix planifolia ssp. planifolia to simulated herbivory. Oecologia 107: 373 – 378CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hunter MD, Price PW (1992) Playing chutes and ladders: heterogeneity and the relative roles of bottom-up and top-down forces in natural communities. Ecology 73: 724 – 732Google Scholar
  51. Jefferies RL, Klein DR, Shaver GR (1994) Vertebrate herbivores and northern plant-communities: reciprocal influences and responses. Oikos 71: 193 – 206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Johnson SR, Allain LK (1998) Observations on insect use of Chinese tallow (Sapium sebiferum ( L.) Roxb) in Louisiana and Texas. Castanea 63: 188–189Google Scholar
  53. Jubinsky G, Anderson LC (1996) The invasive potential of Chinese tallow-tree (Sapium sebiferum Roxb.) in the southeast. Castanea 61: 226 – 231Google Scholar
  54. Karban R, Baldwin IT (1997) Induced responses to herbivory. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, IllinoisGoogle Scholar
  55. Karban R, Strauss SY (1993) Effects of herbivores on growth and reproduction of their perennial host, Erigeron glaucus. Ecology 74: 39 – 46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Keane RM, Crawley MJ (2002) Exotic plant invasions and the enemy release hypothesis. Trends Ecol Evol 17: 164 – 170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Knapp AK, Blair JB, Briggs JM, Collins SC, Hartnett DC, Johnson L, Towne G (1999) The keystone role of bison in North American tallgrass prairie. BioScience 49: 39 – 50CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lankau RA, Siemann E, Rogers WE (2004) Constraints on the utilisation of invasive Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum) by generalist native herbivores in coastal prairies. Ecol Entomol 29: 66 – 75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lee CE (2002) Evolutionary genetics of invasive species. Trends Ecol Evol 17: 386 – 391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Leger EA, Rice K (2003) Invasive California poppies (Eschscholzia californica Cham.) grow larger than native individuals under reduced competition. Ecol Lett 6: 257 – 264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Leibold MA (1996) A graphical model of keystone predators in food webs: trophic regulation of abundance, incidence, and diversity patterns in communities. Am Nat 147: 784 - 812CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Lill JT, Marquis RJ (200 1) The effects of leaf quality on herbivore performance and attack from natural enemies. Oecologia 126: 418 – 428Google Scholar
  63. Louda SM, Keeler KH, Holt RD (1990) Herbivore influence on plant performance and competitive interactions. In: Grace JB, Tilman D (eds) Perspectives on plant competition. Academic Press, New York, pp 413 – 444CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Louda SM, Arnett AE, Rand A, Russell FL (2003) Invasiveness of some biological control insects and adequacy of their ecological risk assessment and regulation. Conserv Biol 17: 73 – 82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Mack RN (1996) Predicting the identity and fate of plant invaders: emergent and emerging approaches. Biol Conserv 78: 107 – 121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Mack RN, Simberloff D, Lonsdale WM, Evans H, Clout M, Bazzaz FA (2000) Biotic invasions: causes, epidemiology, global consequences, and control. Ecol Appl 10: 689 – 710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Marcel M, Klinkhamer PGL, Vrieling K, van der Meijden E (2002) Diversity of pyrrolizidine alkaloids in Senecio species does not affect the specialist herbivore Tyria jacobaeae. Oecologia 133: 541 – 550CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Maron JL (1998) Insect herbivory above-and belowground: individual and joint effects on plant fitness. Ecology 79: 1281 – 1293CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Maron JL, Vila M (2001) When do herbivores affect plant invasion? Evidence for the natural enemies and biotic resistance hypotheses. Oikos 95: 361 – 373CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Marquis RJ (1992) The selective impact of herbivores. In: Fritz RS, Simms EL (eds) Plant resistance to herbivores and pathogens: ecology, evolution, and genetics. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 301 – 325Google Scholar
  71. Marquis RJ, Whelan C (1996) Plant morphology and recruitment of the third trophic level: subtle and little-recognized defenses? Oikos 75: 330 – 334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Maschinski J, Whitham T (1989) The continuum of plant responses to herbivory: the influence of plant association, nutrient availability and timing.Am Nat 134: 1 – 19Google Scholar
  73. Masters GJ, Jones TH, Rogers M (2001) Host-plant mediated effects of root herbivory on insect seed predators and their parasitoids. Oecologia 127: 246 – 250PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Mauricio R (1998) Costs of resistance to natural enemies in field populations of the annual plant Arabidopsis thaliana.Am Nat 151: 20 – 28Google Scholar
  75. McFayden RE (1998) Biological control of weeds. Annu Rev Entomol 43: 369 – 393CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. McLellan AJ, Law R, Fitter AH (1997) Response of calcareous grassland plant species to diffuse competition: results from a removal experiment. J Ecol 85: 479 – 490CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. McNaughton SJ, Milchunas DG, Frank DA, Williams KJ (1996) How can net primary productivity be measured in grazing ecosystems? Ecology 77: 974 – 977CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Meiners SJ, Handel SN (2000) Additive and nonadditive effects of herbivory and competition on tree seedling mortality, growth, and allocation.Am J Bot 87: 1821 – 1826Google Scholar
  79. Mooney HA, Cleland EE (2001) The evolutionary impact of invasive species. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98: 5446 – 5451PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Mooney HA, Drake JA (1989) Biological invasions: a SCOPE program overview. In: Drake JA, Mooney HA, di Castri F, Groves RH, Kruger F, Rejmanek M, Williamson MW (eds) Biological invasions. Wiley, New York, pp 491 – 508Google Scholar
  81. Moran NA, Whitham TG (1990) Interspecific competition between root-feeding and leaf-galling aphids mediated by host-plant resistance. Ecology 71: 1050 – 1058CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Mortimer SR, van der Putten WH, Brown VK (1999) Insect and nematode herbivorybelow ground: interactions and role in vegetation succession. In: Olff H, Brown V Drent R (eds) Herbivores: between plants and predators. Blackwell, Cambridge, pp 205 – 238Google Scholar
  83. Müller-Schärer H (1991) The impact of root herbivory as a function of plant density and competition: survival, growth and fecundity of Centaurea maculosa in field plots. J Appl Ecol 28: 759 – 776CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Müller-Schärer H, Brown VK (1995) Direct and indirect effects of above-and below-ground insect herbivory on plant density and performance of Tripleurospermum perforatum during early plant succession. Oikos 72: 36 – 41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Nötzold R, Blossey B, Newton E (1998) The influence of below ground herbivory and plant competition on growth and biomass allocation of purple loosestrife. Oecologia 113: 82 – 93Google Scholar
  86. Osterheld M, McNaughton SJ (2000) Herbivory in terrestrial ecosystems. In: Sala OE, Jackson RB, Mooney HA, Howarth RW (eds) Methods in ecosystem science. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 151 – 158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Paine RT (1966) Food web complexity and species diversity.Am Nat 100: 65 – 75Google Scholar
  88. Perry DA (1994) Forest ecosystems. John Hopkins University Press, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
  89. Pimentel D, Lach L, Zuniga R, Morrison D (2000) Environmental and economic costs of nonindigenous species in the United States. BioScience 50: 53 – 65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Price PW, Bouton CE, Gross P, McPheron BA, Thompson JN, Weis AE (1980) Interactions among three trophic levels: influence of plants on interactions between insect herbivores and natural enemies. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 11: 41 – 65CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Reichman OJ, Smith CC (1991) Responses to simulated leaf and root herbivory by a biennial, Tragopogon dubius. Ecology 72: 116–124Google Scholar
  92. Ritchie ME, Tilman D (1992) Interspecific competition among grasshoppers and their effect on plant abundance in experimental field environments. Oecologia 89: 524 – 532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Ritchie ME, Tilman D, Knops JMH (1998) Herbivore effects on plant and nitrogendynamics in oak savanna. Ecology 79: 165 – 177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Rogers WE, Hartnett DC (2001) Vegetation responses to different spatial patterns of soil disturbance in burned and unburned tallgrass prairie. Plant Ecol 155: 99 – 109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Rogers WE, Siemann E (2002) Effects of simulated herbivory and resource availability on native and invasive exotic tree seedlings. Basic Appl Ecol 4: 297 – 307CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Rogers WE, Siemann E (2003) Effects of simulated herbivory and resources on Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum, Euphorbiaceae) invasion of native coastal prairie.Am J Bot 90: 241 – 247Google Scholar
  97. Rogers WE, Siemann E (2004) Invasive ecotypes tolerate herbivory more effectively than native ecotypes of the Chinese tallow tree. J Appl Ecol 41: 561 – 570CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Rogers WE, Nijjer S, Smith C, Siemann E (2000) Effects of resources and herbivory on leaf morphology and physiology of Chinese tallow (Sapium sebiferum) tree seedlings. Texas J Sci 52S: 43 – 56Google Scholar
  99. Rogers WE, Siemann E, Lankau RA (2003) Damage induced production of extrafloral nectaries in native and introduced seedlings of Chinese tallow tree (Sapium sebiferum).Am Midl Nat 149: 413 – 417Google Scholar
  100. Rosenthal JP, Kotanen PM (1994) Terrestrial plant tolerance to herbivory. Trends Ecol Evol 9: 145 – 148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Sakai AK, Allendorf FW, Holt JS, Lodge DM, Molofsky J, With KA, Baughman S, Cabin RJ, Cohen JE, Ellstrand NC, McCauley DE, O’Neil P, Parker IM, Thompson JN, Weller SG (2001) The population biology of invasive species. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 32: 305 – 332CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Schierenbeck KA, Mack RN, Sharitz RR (1994) Effects of herbivory on growth and biomass allocation in native and introduced species of Lonicera. Ecology 75: 1661 – 1672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Schlichting CD, Smith H (2002) Phenotypic plasticity: linking molecular mechanisms with evolutionary outcomes. Evol Ecol 16: 189 – 211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Schmid B, Miao SL, Bazazz FA (1990) Effects of simulated root herbivory and fertilizer application on growth and biomass allocation in the clonal perennial Solidago canadensis. Oecologia 84: 9 – 15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Schmitz OJ (1993) Trophic exploitation in grassland food chains: simple models and a field experiment. Oecologia 93: 327 – 335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Schmitz OJ (1998) Direct and indirect effects of predation and predation risk in old-field interaction webs.Am Nat 151: 327 – 342Google Scholar
  107. Seastedt TR, Ramundo R, Hayes D (1988) Maximization of densities of soil animals by foliage herbivory: empirical evidence, graphical and conceptual models. Oikos 51: 243 – 248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Siemann E, Rogers WE (2001) Genetic differences in growth of an invasive tree species. Ecol Lett 4: 514 – 518CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Siemann E, Rogers WE (2003a) Herbivory, disease, recruitment limitation and the success of an alien tree species. Ecology 84: 1489 – 1505CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Siemann E, Rogers WE (2003b) Reduced resistance of invasive varieties of the alien tree Sapium sebiferum to a generalist herbivore. Oecologia 135: 451 – 457PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Siemann E, Rogers WE (2003 c) Increased competitive ability of an invasive tree may be limited by an invasive beetle. Ecol Appl 13: 1503 – 1507Google Scholar
  112. Siemann E, Rogers WE (2003d) Changes in light and nitrogen availability under pioneer trees may indirectly facilitate tree invasions of grasslands. J Ecol 91: 923 – 931CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Simberloff D (2003) How much information on population biology is needed to manage introduced species? Conserv Biol 17: 83 – 92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Simms EL (1992) Costs of plant resistance to herbivory. In: Fritz RS, Simms EL (eds) Plant resistance to herbivores and pathogens. University of Chicago Press, Chicago, pp 392 – 425Google Scholar
  115. Simms EL, Rausher M (1987) Costs and benefits of plant resistance to herbivory.Am Nat 130: 570 – 581Google Scholar
  116. Smith MD, Hartnett DC, Wilson GW (1999) Interacting influence of mycorrhizal symbiosis and competition on plant diversity in tallgrass prairie. Oecologia 121: 574 – 582CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Soule ME (1990) The onslaught of alien species, and other challenges in the coming decades. Conserv Biol 4: 233 – 239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Steinger T, Müller-Schärer H (1992) Physiological and growth responses of Centaurea maculosa ( Asteraceae) to root herbivory under varying levels of interspecific plant competition and soil nitrogen availability. Oecologia 91: 141–149Google Scholar
  119. Stockwell CA, Hendry AP, Kinnison MT (2003) Contemporary evolution meets conservation biology. Trends Ecol Evol 18: 94 – 101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Stowe KA (1998) Experimental evolution of resistance in Brassica rapa: correlated response of tolerance in lines selected for glucosinolate content. Evolution 52: 703 – 712CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Stowe KA, Marquis RJ, Hochwender CG, Simms EL (2001) The evolutionary ecology of tolerance to consumer damage. Annu Rev Ecol Syst 31: 565 – 595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Strauss SY, Agrawal AA (1995) The ecology and evolution of plant tolerance to herbivory. Trends Ecol Evol 14: 179 – 185CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Strauss SY, Rudgers JA, Lau JA, Irwin RE (2002) Direct and ecological costs of resistance to herbivory. Trends Ecol Evol 17: 278 – 285CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Strong DR, McCoy ED, Rey JR (1977) Time and the number of herbivore species: the pests of sugarcane. Ecology 58: 167 – 175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Strong DR, Lawton JH, Southwood TRE (1984) Insects on plants. Harvard University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  126. Strong DR, Maron JL, Connors PG, Whipple A, Harrison S, Jefferies RL (1995) High mortality, fluctuation in numbers, and heavy subterranean insect herbivory in bush lupine, Lupinus arboreus. Oecologia 104: 85 – 92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Thebaud C, Simberloff D (2001) Are plants really larger in their introduced ranges? Am Nat 157: 231 – 236PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Thompson JN (1998) Rapid evolution as an ecological process. Trends Ecol Evol 13: 329 – 332PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Tiffin P, Inouye BD (2000) Measuring tolerance to herbivory: accuracy and precision of estimates made using natural versus imposed damage. Evolution 54: 1024 – 1029PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. Tilman D (1999) The ecological consequences of changes in biodiversity: a search for general principles. Ecology 80: 1455 – 1474Google Scholar
  131. Tucker KC, Richardson DM (1995) An expert system for screening potentially invasive alien plants in South African fynbos. J Environ Manage 44: 309 – 338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. van der Meijden E, Wijn M, Verkaar HJ (1988) Defense and regrowth, alternative strategies in the struggle against herbivores. Oikos 51: 355 – 363CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. Verschoor BC, Pronk TE, de Goede RGM, Brussaard L (2002) Could plant-feeding nematodes affect the competition between grass species during succession in grasslands under restoration management? J Ecol 90: 753 – 761CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. Williamson M (1996) Biological invasions. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  135. Willis AJ, Blossey B (1999) Benign environments do not explain the increased vigour of non-indigenous plants: a cross-continental transplant experiment. Biocontrol Sci Tech 9: 567 – 577CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. Willis AJ, Thomas M, Lawton JH (1999) Is the increased vigour of invasive weeds explained by a trade-off between growth and herbivore resistance? Oecologia 120: 632 – 640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. Willis AJ, Memmott J, Forrester RI (2000) Is there evidence for the post-invasion evolution of increased size among invasive plant species? Ecol Lett 3: 275 – 283CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. Wolfe LM (2002) Why alien invaders succeed: support for the escape from enemy hypothesis.Am Nat 160: 705 – 711Google Scholar
  139. Yela JL, Lawton JH (1997) Insect herbivore loads on native and introduced plants; a preliminary study. Entomol Exp Appl 85: 275 – 279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. Zhang K, Lin Y (1994) Chinese tallow. China Forestry Press, BeijingGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. E. Rogers
  • E. Siemann

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations