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Secretory Immunity Following Mutans Streptococcal Infection or Immunization

  • D. J. Smith
  • R. O. Mattos-Graner
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 319)

Abstract

Salivary IgA antibody responses to mutans streptococci can be observed in early childhood, sometimes even before permanent colonization of the oral biofilm occurs. Many of these early immune responses are directed to components thought to be essential for establishment and emergence of mutans streptococci in the oral biofilm. Initial responses are likely to be modulated by antigen dose, by immunological maturity, and by previous encounters with similar antigenic epitopes in the pioneer commensal flora. Our understanding of these modulating factors is modest and is an opportunity for continued investigation. Under controlled conditions of infection, experimental vaccine approaches have repeatedly shown that infection and disease can be modified in the presence of elevated levels of antibody in the oral cavity. Protection can be observed regardless of antibody isotype or method used to actively or passively provide the immune reagent. Limited clinical trials have supported the utility of both of these approaches in humans. Refinements in antigen formulation, delivery vehicles, enhancing agents and routes of application, coupled with approaches that are timed to intercept most vulnerable periods of infection of primary and permanent dentition may well provide the healthcare practitioner with an additional tool to maintain oral health.

Keywords

Dental Caries Mutans Streptococcus Gingival Crevicular Fluid Passive Immunization Intranasal Immunization 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Abbreviations

MS

Mutans streptococci

S. mutans

Streptococcus mutans

Gbp

Glucan-binding protein

Ag I/II

Antigen I/II

S. sobrinus

Streptococcus sobrinus

SpaA

Surface protein antigen A

WapA

Cell wall-associated protein

Gtf

Glucosyltransferase

CA-Gtf

Cell-associated glucosyltransferase

CF-Gtf

Culture supernatant glucosyltransferase

GCF

Gingival crevicular fluid

IgG

Immunoglobulin G

IgA

Immunoglobulin A

IgM

Immunoglobulin M

IgY

Immunoglobulin Y

SIgA

Secretory immunoglobulin A

MALT

Mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue

GALT

Gut-associated lymphoid tissue

T cells

Thymus-derived lymphocytes

B cells

Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes

MHC

Major histocompatibility complex

S. mitis

Streptococcus mitis

S. salivarius

Streptococcus salivarius

ELISA

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

NALT

Nasal-associated lymphoid tissue

SBR-CT

Salivary binding reception-cholera toxin

scFc

Single chain Fc

VHH

Variable domain of llama heavy chain homodimeric IgG

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. J. Smith
    • 1
  • R. O. Mattos-Graner
  1. 1.Department of ImmunologyThe Forsyth InstituteBostonUSA

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