A Distinct Role for B1b Lymphocytes in T Cell-Independent Immunity

  • K. R. Alugupalli
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 319)


Pathogenesis of infectious disease is not only determined by the virulence of the microbe but also by the immune status of the host. Vaccination is the most effective means to control infectious diseases. A hallmark of the adaptive immune system is the generation of B cell memory, which provides a long-lasting protective antibody response that is central to the concept of vaccination. Recent studies revealed a distinct function for B1b lymphocytes, a minor subset of mature B cells that closely resembles that of memory B cells in a number of aspects. In contrast to the development of conventional B cell memory, which requires the formation of germinal centers and T cells, the development of B1b cell-mediated long-lasting antibody responses occurs independent of T cell help. T cell-independent (TI) antigens are important virulence factors expressed by a number of bacterial pathogens, including those associated with biological threats. TI antigens cannot be processed and presented to T cells and therefore are known to possess restricted T cell-dependent (TD) immunogenicity. Nevertheless, specific recognition of TI antigens by B1b cells and the highly protective antibody responses mounted by them clearly indicate a crucial role for this subset of B cells. Understanding the mechanisms of long-term immunity conferred by B1b cells may lead to improved vaccine efficacy for a variety of TI antigens.


Antibody Response Germinal Center Reaction Protective Antibody Response 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



Activation-induced cytidinedeaminase


B cell antigen receptor


Bruton’s tyrosine kinase


Class switch-recombination








Peritoneal cavity




Recombination-activating gene 1


Somatic hypermutation


T cell-dependent


T cell-independent


T cell-independent type 1


T cell-independent type 2


Toll-like receptor


X-linked immunodeficiency


X-linked agammaglobulinemia


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. R. Alugupalli
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology and Immunology, Kimmel Cancer CenterThomas Jefferson UniversityPhiladelphiaUSA

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