Advertisement

ALGSICS — Combining Physics and Cryptography to Enhance Security and Privacy in RFID Systems

  • Neil Bird
  • Claudine Conrado
  • Jorge Guajardo
  • Stefan Maubach
  • Geert-Jan Schrijen
  • Boris Skoric
  • Anton M. H. Tombeur
  • Peter Thueringer
  • Pim Tuyls
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 4572)

Abstract

In this paper, we introduce several new mechanisms that are cheap to implement or integrate into RFID tags and that at the same time enhance their security and privacy properties. Our aim is to provide solutions that make use of existing (or expected) functionality on the tag or that are inherently cheap and thus, enhance the privacy friendliness of the technology “almost” for free. Our proposals, for example, make use of environmental information (presence of light temperature, humidity, etc.) to disable or enable the RFID tag. A second possibility that we explore is the use of delays in revealing a secret key used to later establish a secure communication channel. We also introduce the idea of a “sticky tag,” which can be used to re-enable a disabled (or killed) tag whenever the user considers it to be safe. We discuss the security and describe usage scenarios for all solutions. Finally, we review previous works that use physical principles to provide security and privacy in RFID systems.

Keywords

RFID privacy cheap solutions sensors physics and crypto 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Staake, T., Thiesse, F., Fleisch, E.: Extending the EPC Network — The Potential of RFID in Anti-Counterfeiting. In: Haddad, H., Liebrock, L.M., Wainwright, A.O. (eds.) SAC 2005, March 13-17, 2005, ACM Press, New York (2005)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Juels, A.: Minimalist Cryptography for Low-Cost RFID Tags. In: Blundo, C., Cimato, S. (eds.) SCN 2004. LNCS, vol. 3352, pp. 149–164. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Juels, A., Weis, S.: Authenticating Pervasive Devices with Human Protocols. In: Shoup, V. (ed.) CRYPTO 2005. LNCS, vol. 3621, pp. 293–308. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Feldhofer, M., Dominikus, S., Wolkerstorfer, J.: Strong Authentication for RFID Systems Using the AES Algorithm. In: Joye, M., Quisquater, J.-J. (eds.) CHES 2004. LNCS, vol. 3156, pp. 357–370. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Dominikus, S., Oswald, E., Feldhofer, M.: Symmetric Authentication for RFID Systems in Practice. Printed handout of Workshop on RFID and Light-Weight Crypto, pp. 25–31. ECRYPT Network of Excellence (July 13-15, 2005)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Weis, S.A., Sarma, S.E., Rivest, R.L., Engels, D.W.: Security and privacy aspects of low-cost radio frequency identification systems. In: Hutter, D., Müller, G., Stephan, W., Ullmann, M. (eds.) SPC 2003. LNCS, vol. 2802, pp. 201–212. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Tuyls, P., Batina, L.: RFID-tags for Anti-Counterfeiting. In: Pointcheval, D. (ed.) CT-RSA 2006. LNCS, vol. 3860, pp. 115–131. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Batina, L., Guajardo, J., Kerins, T., Mentens, N., Tuyls, P., Verbauwhede, I.: Public-Key Cryptography for RFID-Tags. In: PerCom 2007 Workshops. IEEE Conference on Pervasive Computing and Communications Workshops, New York, March 19-23, 2007, IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos (2007)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Juels, A., Rivest, R.L., Szydlo, M.: The blocker tag: selective blocking of RFID tags for consumer privacy. In: Jajodia, S., Atluri, V., Jaeger, T. (eds.) CCS 2003. ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security, October 27-30, 2003, pp. 103–111. ACM Press, New York (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Juels, A., Brainard, J.G.: Soft blocking: flexible blocker tags on the cheap. In: Atluri, V., Syverson, P.F., di Vimercati, S.D.C. (eds.) WPES 2004. ACM Workshop on Privacy in the Electronic Society, October 28, 2004, pp. 1–7. ACM Press, New York (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Floerkemeier, C., Schneider, R., Langheinrich, M.: Scanning with a purpose – supporting the fair information principles in RFID protocols. In: Murakami, H., Nakashima, H., Tokuda, H., Yasumura, M. (eds.) UCS 2004. LNCS, vol. 3598, pp. 214–231. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Rieback, M., Crispo, B., Tanenbaum, A.: RFID guardian: A battery-powered mobile device for RFID privacy management. In: Boyd, C., González Nieto, J.M. (eds.) Information Security and Privacy. LNCS, vol. 3574, pp. 184–194. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Karjoth, G., Moskowitz, P.: Disabling RFID tags with visible confirmation: Clipped tags are silenced. In: WPES. Workshop on Privacy in the Electronic Society, Alexandria, Virginia, November 2005, ACM Press, New York (2005)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Munilla, J., Ortiz, A., Peinado, A.: Distance bounding protocols with void-challenges for RFID. Printed handout of Workshop on RFID Security – RFIDSec 06, pp. 15–26. ECRYPT Network of Excellence (July 2006)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Castelluccia, C., Avoine, G.: Noisy tags: A pretty good key exchange protocol for RFID tags. In: Domingo-Ferrer, J., Posegga, J., Schreckling, D. (eds.) CARDIS 2006. LNCS, vol. 3928, pp. 289–299. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chabanne, H., Fumaroli, G.: Noisy Cryptographic Protocols for Low-Cost RFID Tags. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 52(8), 3562–3566 (2006)CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Juels, A.: RFID Security and Privacy: A Research Survey. IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications 24(2), 381–394 (2006), extended version available from http://www.rsasecurity.com/rsalabs/node.asp?id=2029 CrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Philipose, M., Smith, J., Jiang, B., Mamishev, A.: Battery-Free Wireless Identification and Sensing. IEEE Pervasive Computing 4(1), 37–45 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Opasjumruskit, K., Thanthipwan, T., Sathusen, O., Sirinamarattana, P., Gadmanee, P., Pootarapan, E., Wongkomet, N., Thanachayanont, A., Thamsirianunt, M.: Self-powered wireless temperature sensors exploit RFID technology. IEEE Pervasive Computing 5(1), 54–61 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kitayoshi, H., Sawaya, K.: Long range passive rfid-tag for sensor networks. In: IEEE 62nd Vehicular Technology Conference — VTC-2005, September 25-28, 2005, pp. 2696–2700. IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Weis, S.: Security and privacy in radio-frequency identification devices. Master thesis, May 2003, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, Massachusetts (2003)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Swedberg, C.: DHL Expects to Launch Sensor Tag Service by Midyear. RFID Journal (January 19th, 2007), available at http://www.rfidjournal.com/article/articleprint/2986/-1/1/
  23. 23.
    Radovanovic, S., Annema, A., Nauta, B.: High-speed lateral polysilicon photodiode in standard CMOS technology. In: ESSDERC 2003. 33rd European Solid-State Circuits Conference, September 16-18, 2003, IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos (2003)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Juels, A., Pappu, R.: Squealing Euros: Privacy Protection in RFID-Enabled Banknotes. In: Wright, R.N. (ed.) Financial Cryptography. LNCS, vol. 2742, pp. 103–121. Springer, Heidelberg (2003)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Batista, E.: Step Back’ for Wireless ID Tech? Wired News (April 8th, 2003), available at http://www.wired.com/news/wireless/0,1382,58385,00.html
  26. 26.
    Karygiannis, T., Eydt, B., Barber, G., Bunn, L., Phillips, T.: Draft Special Publication 800-98, Guidance for Securing Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) Systems. National Institute for Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD, USA. (September 2006), available for download at http://csrc.nist.gov/
  27. 27.
    Chan, Y., Meng, M.Q.H., Wu, K.L., Wang, X.: Experimental Study of Radiation Efficiency from an Ingested Source inside a Human Body Model. In: IEEE Annual International Conference of the Engineering in Medicine and Bilogy Society — IEEE-EMBS (September 1st-4th, 2005), pp. 7754–7757 (2005)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    KU Information & Telecommunication Technology Center. The University of Kansas: UHF KU-RFID Tag (2006), available at http://www.rfidalliancelab.org/publications/ittc_press_release.shtml
  29. 29.
    Sarma, S.: Some issues related to rfid and security. Introductory Talk – RFIDSec 06 (July 2006), available at http://events.iaik.tugraz.at/RFIDSec06/Program/index.htm
  30. 30.
    Stajano, F., Anderson, R.J.: The Resurrecting Duckling: Security Issues for Ad-hoc Wireless Networks. In: Malcolm, J.A., Christianson, B., Crispo, B., Roe, M. (eds.) Security Protocols. LNCS, vol. 1796, pp. 19–21. Springer, Heidelberg (2000)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    May, T.C.: Timed-release crypto. Posting to the Cypherpunks Mailing List (February 10th, 1993), available at http://cypherpunks.venona.com/date/1993/02/msg00129.html
  32. 32.
    Juels, A., Syverson, P., Bailey, D.: High-Power Proxies for Enhancing RFID Privacy and Utility. In: Danezis, G., Martin, D. (eds.) PET 2005. LNCS, vol. 3856, pp. 210–226. Springer, Heidelberg (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Soppera, A., Burbridge, T.: Off by default - RAT: RFID acceptor tag. Printed handout of Workshop on RFID Security – RFIDSec 06, pp. 151–166. ECRYPT Network of Excellence (July 2006)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Haselsteiner, E., Breitfuss, K.: Security in near field communication (NFC). Printed handout of Workshop on RFID Security – RFIDSec 06, pp. 151–166. ECRYPT Network of Excellence (July 2006)Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Brands, S., Chaum, D.: Distance-bounding protocols (extended abstract). In: Helleseth, T. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 1993. LNCS, vol. 765, pp. 344–359. Springer, Heidelberg (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Fishkin, K.P., Roy, S., Jiang, B.: Some Methods for Privacy in RFID Communication. In: Castelluccia, C., Hartenstein, H., Paar, C., Westhoff, D. (eds.) ESAS 2004. LNCS, vol. 3313, pp. 42–53. Springer, Heidelberg (2005)Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hancke, G., Kuhn, M.: An RFID distance bounding protocol. In: Conference on Security and Privacy for Emerging Areas in Communication Networks – SecureComm 2005, September 2005, pp. 67–73. IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Inoue, S., Yasuura, H.: RFID privacy using user-controllable uniqueness. RFID Privacy Workshop (November 2003)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bolotnyy, L., Robins, G.: Multi-tag radio frequency identification systems. In: Workshop on Automatic Identification Advanced Technologies — AutoID, 345 E. 47th St, New York, October, 2005, NY 10017, pp. 83–88 (2005)Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Rivest, R.L.: Chaffing and Winnowing: Confidentiality without Encryption. CryptoBytes 4(1), 12–17 (1998)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Zou, C.C.: PCB: Physically Changeable Bit for Preserving Privacy in Low-End RFID Tags. RFID White Paper Library, RFID Journal (May 2006)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Neil Bird
    • 1
  • Claudine Conrado
    • 1
  • Jorge Guajardo
    • 1
  • Stefan Maubach
    • 2
  • Geert-Jan Schrijen
    • 1
  • Boris Skoric
    • 1
  • Anton M. H. Tombeur
    • 1
  • Peter Thueringer
    • 3
  • Pim Tuyls
    • 1
  1. 1.Philips Research Europe, EindhovenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.IMAPP, Radboud University Nijmegen, NijmegenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.NXP, GratkornAustria

Personalised recommendations