Advertisement

Synthetic Characters in Health-related Applications

  • R. Hubal
  • P. Kizakevich
  • R. Furberg
Part of the Studies in Computational Intelligence book series (SCI, volume 65)

Abstract

This chapter introduces synthetic character technologies, surveys the broad range of health-related applications using synthetic characters, and addresses in detail the development and usage of health-related synthetic character applications.

Keywords

Virtual Reality Virtual Environment Standardize Patient Interaction Skill Conversational Agent 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    André, E., and Rehm, M.: Guest editorial. Künstliche Intelligenz (KI Journal), Special Issue on Embodied Conversational Agents 17 (2003) 4Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    André, E., Rist, T., and Müller, J.: Employing AI methods to control the behav-ior of animated interface agents. International Journal of Applied Artificial Intel-ligence 13 (1999) 415-448Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bates, J.: The role of emotion in believable agents. Communications of the ACM 37 (1994) 122-125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bédard, J., and Chi, M.T.H.: Expertise. Current Directions in Psychological Science 1 (1992) 135-139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bickmore, T., Gruber A, and Picard R.: Establishing the computer-patient working alliance in automated health behavior change interventions. Patient Education and Counseling 59 (2005) 21-30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Cassell, J., and Vilhjálmsson, H.H.: Fully embodied conversational avatars: making communicative behaviors autonomous. Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems 2 (1999) 45-64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cassell, J., Bickmore, T., Billinghurst, M., Campbell, L., Chang, K., Vilhjálmsson, H., and Yan, H.: An architecture for embodied conversational characters. Workshop on Embodied Conversational Characters 1 (1998) 21-30Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Conati, C.: Probabilistic assessment of user’s emotions in educational games. Applied Artificial Intelligence 16 (2002) 555-575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cruz-Neira, C., Sandin, D.J., DeFanti, T.A., Kenyon, R.V., and Hart, J.C.: The CAVE: audiovisual experience automatic virtual environment. Communications of the ACM 35 (1992) 67-72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    de Rosis, F., Novielli, N., Carofiglio, V., Cavalluzzi, A., and De Carolis, B.: User modeling and adaptation in health promotion dialogs with an animated character. Journal of Biomedical Informatics 39 (2006) 514-531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Deterding, R., Milliron, C., and Hubal, R.: The virtual pediatric standardized patient application: formative evaluation findings. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 111 (2005) 105-107Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Frank, G., Guinn, C., Hubal, R., Pope, P., Stanford, M., and Lamm-Weisel, D.: JUST-TALK: an application of responsive virtual human technology. Interser-vice/Industry Training, Simulation and Education Conference 24 (2002) 773-779Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fu, D., Houlette, R., and Ludwig, J.: Intelligent behaviors for simulated entities. Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation and Education Conference 27 (2005) 1654-1660Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Funge, J., Tu, X., and Terzopoulos, D.: Cognitive modeling: knowledge, reason-ing and planning for intelligent characters. Computer Graphics and Interactive Techniques 26 (1999) 29-38Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Gaggioli, A., Mantovani, F., Castelnuovo, G., Wiederhold, B., and Riva, G.: Avatars in clinical psychology: a framework for the clinical use of virtual humans. CyberPsychology & Behavior 6 (2003) 117-125CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Godéreaux, C., El Guedj, P.O., Revolta, F., and Nugues, P.: A conversational agent for navigating in virtual worlds. Humankybernetik 37 (1996) 39-51Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Gratch, J., Rickel, J., André, E., Badler, N., Cassell, J., and Petajan, E.: Crea-ting interactive virtual humans: some assembly required. IEEE Intelligent Sys-tems 17 (2002) 54-63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Guinn, C., and Hubal, R.: Extracting emotional information from the text of spoken dialog. User Modeling 9 (2003) Workshop on Assessing and Adapting to User Attitudes and Affect: Why, When and How?Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Guinn, C.I., and Montoya, R.J.: Natural language processing in virtual reality. Modern Simulation & Training 6 (1998) 44-55Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Guinn, C., Hubal, R., Frank, G., Schwetzke, H., Zimmer, J., Backus, S., Deterding, R., Link, M., Armsby, P., Caspar, R., Flicker, L., Visscher, W., Meehan, A., and Zelon, H.: Usability and acceptability studies of conversa-tional virtual human technology. SIGdial Workshop on Discourse and Dialogue 5 (2004) 1-8Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hails, J., and Borum, R.: Police training and specialized approaches to respond to people with mental illnesses. Crime & Delinquency 49 (2003) 52-61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Harless, W.G., Zier, M.A., Harless, M.G., and Duncan, R.C.: Virtual conversa- tions: an interface to knowledge. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 23 (2003) 46-52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Hayes-Roth, B., Amano, K., Saker, R., and Sephton, T.: Training brief interven-tion with a virtual coach and virtual patients. Annual Review of CyberTherapy and Telemedicine 2 (2004) 85-96Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Hemman, E.A.: Improving combat medic learning using a personal computer-based virtual training simulator. Military Medicine 170 (2005) 723-727Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hubal, R.C., and Day, R.S.: Informed consent procedures: an experimental test using a virtual character in a dialog systems training application. Journal of Biomedical Informatics 39 (2006) 532-540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hubal, R., and Frank, G.: Interactive training applications using responsive virtual human technology. Interservice/Industry Training, Simulation and Edu-cation Conference 23 (2001) 1076-1086Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hubal, R.C., Deterding, R.R., Frank, G.A., Schwetzke, H.F., and Kizakevich, P.N.: Lessons learned in modeling pediatric patients. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 94 (2003) 127-130Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Hubal, R.C., Frank, G.A., and Guinn, C.I.: Lessons learned in modeling schizophrenic and depressed responsive virtual humans for training. Intelligent User Interfaces 7 (2003) 85-92Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hubal, R., Frank, G., Guinn, C., and Dupont, R.: Integrating a crisis stages model into a simulation for training law enforcement officers to manage encoun-ters with the mentally ill. AAAI Spring Symposium Series Workshop on Archi-tectures for Modeling Emotion: Cross-Disciplinary Foundations (2004) 68-69Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Hubal, R.C., Kizakevich, P.N., Guinn, C.I., Merino, K.D., and West, S.L.: The virtual standardized patient: simulated patient-practitioner dialogue for patient interview training. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 70 (2000) 133-138Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Johnsen, K., Dickerson, R., Raij, A., Harrison, C., Lok, B., Stevens, A., and Lind, D.S.: Evolving an immersive medical communication skills trainer. Pres-ence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments 15 (2006) 33-46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Kizakevich, P.N., Duncan, S., Zimmer, J., Schwetzke, H., Jochem, W., McCartney, M.L., Starko, K., and Smith, N.T.: Chemical agent simulator for emergency preparedness training. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 98 (2004) 164-170Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kizakevich, P.N., Lux, L., Duncan, S., Guinn, C., and McCartney, M.L.: Vir- tual simulated patients for bioterrorism preparedness training. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 94 (2003) 165-167Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Kizakevich, P.N., McCartney, M.L., Nissman, D.B., Starko, K., and Smith, N.T.: Virtual medical trainer: patient assessment and trauma care simulator. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 50 (1998) 309-315Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kizakevich, P.N., Teague, S.M., Nissman, D.B., Jochem, W.J., Niclou, R., and Sharma, M.K.: Comparative measures of systolic ejection during treadmill exer-cise by impedance cardiography and Doppler echocardiography. Biological Psy-chology 36 (1993) 51-61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Klinger, E., Bouchard, S., Légeron, P., Roy, S., Lauer, F., Chemin, I., and Nugues, P.: Virtual reality therapy versus cognitive behavior therapy for social phobia: a preliminary controlled study. CyberPsychology & Behavior 8 (2005) 76-88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Lisetti, C.L., Nasoz, F., Lerouge, C., Ozyer, O., and Alvarez, K.: Developing multimodal intelligent affective interfaces for tele-home health care. Interna-tional Journal of Human-Computer Studies 59 (2003) 245-255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Liu, A., and Bowyer, M.: Patient safety and medical simulation: issues, chal-lenges and opportunities. Medicine Meets Virtual Reality 14 (2006)Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Marsella, S., Johnson, W.L., and LaBore, C.M.: Interactive pedagogical drama for health interventions. International Conference on Artificial Intelligence in Education 11 (2003) 341-348Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Milgram, P., and Kishino, F.: A taxonomy of mixed reality visual displays. IEICE Transactions on Information Systems E77-D (1994) 1321-1329Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Norling, E., and Ritter, F.E.: Towards supporting psychologically plausible vari-ability in agent-based human modelling. Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems 3 (2004) 758-765Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Olsen, D.E., and Sticha, D.: Interactive simulation training: computer simulated standardized patients for medical diagnosis. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 119 (2006) 413-415Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Paschall, M.J., Fishbein, D.H., Hubal, R.C., and Eldreth, D.: Psychometric properties of virtual reality vignette performance measures: a novel approach for assessing adolescents’ social competency skills. Health Education Research: Theory and Practice 20 (2005) 61-70Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Picard, R.W., Vyzas, E., and Healey, J.: Toward machine emotional intelligence: analysis of affective physiological state. IEEE Transactions on Pattern Analysis and Machine Intelligence 23 (2001) 1175-1191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Prendinger, H., and Ishizuka, M.: Social role awareness in animated agents. Autonomous Agents 5 (2001) 270-277Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Price, M.: Commentary: the challenge of training police officers. Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law 33 (2005) 50-54Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rizzo, A.A., Bowerly, T., Shahabi, C., Buckwalter, J.G., Klimchuk, D., and Mitura, R.: Diagnosing attention disorders in a virtual classroom. IEEE Com-puter 37 (2004) 87-89Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Schmorrow, D.D. (Ed.): Foundations of augmented cognition. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates (2005)Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Silverman, B.G., Holmes, J., Kimmel, S., and Branas, C.: Computer games may be good for your health. Journal of Healthcare Information Management 16 (2002) 80-85Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Slater, M., Pertaub, D.P., and Steed, A.: Public speaking in virtual reality: facing an audience of avatars. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 19 (March/April 1999) 6-9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Smyth, J., and Stone, A.: Ecological momentary assessment research in behav-ioral medicine. Journal of Happiness Studies 4 (2003) 35-52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Steadman, H.J., Deane, M.W., Borum, R., and Morrissey, J.P.: Comparing out-comes of major models for police responses to mental health emergencies. Psy-chiatric Services 51 (2000) 645-649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Stokes, J.: Speech interaction and human behavior representations (HBRs). Computer Generated Forces and Behavioral Representation 10 (2001) 467-476Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Swift, C., Rosen, J.M., Boezer, G., Lanier, J., Henderson, J.V., Liu, A., Merrell, R.C., Nguyen, S., Demas, A., Grigg, E.B., McKnight, M.F., Chang, J., and Koop, C.E.: Homeland security and virtual reality: building a strategic adaptive response system (STARS). Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 111 (2005) 549-555Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Takács, B. (2005), Special education & rehabilitation: teaching and healing with interactive graphics. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications 25 (Septem-ber/October 2005) 40-48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Teplin, L.A.: Keeping the peace: police discretion and mentally ill persons. National Institute of Justice Journal 244 (2000) 8-15Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Weaver, A.L., Kizakevich, P.N., Stoy, W., Magee, J.H., Ott, W., and Wilson, K.: Usability analysis of VR simulation software. Studies in Health Technology and Informatics 85 (2002) 567-569Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ziemkiewicz, C., Ulinski, A., Zanbaka, C., Hardin, S., and Hodges, L.F.: Interac-tive digital patient for triage nurse training. International Conference on Virtual Reality 1 (2005)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • R. Hubal
    • 1
  • P. Kizakevich
    • 2
  • R. Furberg
    • 3
  1. 1.Digital Solutions UnitRTI InternationalUSA
  2. 2.Digital Solutions UnitRTI InternationalUSA
  3. 3.Digital Solutions UnitRTI InternationalUSA

Personalised recommendations