Energetic Particles Related with Coronal and Interplanetary Shocks

  • N. Gopalswamy
Part of the Lecture Notes in Physics book series (LNP, volume 725)


Acceleration of electrons and ions at the Sun is discussed in the framework of CME-driven shocks. Based on the properties of coronal mass ejections associated with type II bursts at various wavelengths, the possibility of a unified approach to the type II phenomena is suggested. Two aspects of primary importance to shock accelerations are: (1) Energy of the driving CME and (2) the conditions in the medium that supports shock propagation. The high degree of overlap between CMEs associated with large solar energetic particle events and type II bursts occurring at all wavelengths underscores the importance of CME energy in driving shocks far into the interplanetary medium. Presence of preceding CMEs can alter the conditions in the ambient medium, which is shown to influence the intensity of large solar energetic particle events. Both statistical evidence and case studies are presented that underscore the importance of the ambient medium.


Solar Phys Radio Burst Interplanetary Shock Alfven Speed Large Solar Energetic Particle Event 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • N. Gopalswamy
    • 1
  1. 1.NASA Goddard Space Flight CenterGreenbeltUSA

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