Advertisement

Small Scale Energy Release and the Acceleration and Transport of Energetic Particles

  • Hugh Hudson
  • Nicole Vilmer
Part of the Lecture Notes in Physics book series (LNP, volume 725)

Abstract

We report on results presented at the sessions of Working Group~1 at CESRA 2004, which covered the topic area of the title of this paper. The working-group participants are listed in the Appendix, and the topics discussed have been brought together in several general areas of focus. The emphasis on the discussion is from the point of view of radiophysics. We organize the material by presenting new constraints imposed by the recent high-energy and radio observations. We note though that multi-wavelength knowledge is generally vital in understanding all of the phenomena involved. The new constraints include exciting new millimeter-wave discoveries, among others. We then place these observations into the framework of our knowledge of the acceleration and propagation of high-energy particles, and of their radio emission mechanisms. The RHESSI1 results are the most distinctive in this time frame, and they have made possible several new advances.

Keywords

Current Sheet Coronal Mass Ejection Solar Phys Magnetic Reconnection Impulsive Phase 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Klein, K.-L.: Energy Conversion and Particle Acceleration in the Solar Corona. Springer, Lecture Notes in Physics 612 (2003)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gary, D.E., Keller, C.U.: Solar and Space Weather Radiophysics - Current Status and Future Developments. Eds D. E. Gary & C. U. Keller, Kluwer, Astrophysics and Space Science Library, 314 (2004)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Gary, D.E., Hurford, G.J.: Coronal temperature, density, and magnetic field maps of a solar acitve region using the Owens Valley Solar Array. ApJ 420 (1994) 903CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Grechnev, V.V., and 10 co-authors: The Siberian Solar Radio Telescope: the current state of the instrument, observations, and data. Solar Phys 216 (2003) 239CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kerdraon, A., Delouis, J.M.: The Nançay Radioheliograph. Coronal Physics from Radio and Space Observations Springer, Lecture Notes in Physics 483 (1997) 192ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Molodij, G., Trottet, G.: Far Infrared Telescope (TIR) Project. In: Dome C Astronomy and Astrophysics Meeting. Eds. M. Giard, F. Casoli and F. Paletou, EAS Publications Series. (2005) 199Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Huovelin, J., and 19 co-authors: The SMART-1 X-ray solar monitor (XSM): calibrations for D-CIXS and independent coronal science. PSS 50 (2002) 1345Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Jain, R., Dave, H., Kumar, S., Deshpande, M.R.: Results of one year of observations of solar flares made by ‘‘Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS)’’ Mission. In: COSPAR, Plenary Meeting (2005) 744Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kelley, R.L., and 13 co-authors: The microcalorimeter spectrometer on the ASTRO-E X-ray observatory. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 444 (2000) 170CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Hudson, H.S.: Solar flares, microflares, nanoflares, and coronal heating. Solar Phys 133 (1991) 357CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Parker, E.N.: Nanoflares and the solar X-ray corona. ApJ 330 (1988) 474CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hannah, I.G., Christe, S., Krucker, S., Hudson, H.S., Fletcher, L., Hendry, M.A.: RHESSI microflare statistics. In: ESA SP-575: SOHO 15 Coronal Heating. (2004) 259Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Feldman, U., Doschek, G.A., Behring, W.E., Phillips, K.J.H.: Electron temperature, emission measure, and X-ray flux in A2 to X2 X-ray class solar flares. ApJ 460 (1996) 1034CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Aschwanden, M.J.: Particle acceleration and kinematics in solar flares - a synthesis of recent observations and theoretical concepts. Space Science Reviews 101 (2002) 1CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Moore, R.L., Sterling, A.C., Hudson, H.S., Lemen, J.R.: Onset of the magnetic explosion in solar flares and coronal mass ejections. ApJ 552 (2001) 833CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fletcher, L., Hudson, H.: The magnetic structure and generation of EUV flare ribbons. Solar Phys 204 (2001) 69CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Fletcher, L., Pollock, J.A., Potts, H.E.: Tracking of TRACE ultraviolet flare footpoints. Solar Phys 222 (2004) 279CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Zhang, J., Dere, K.P., Howard, R.A., Kundu, M.R., White, S.M.: On the temporal relationship between coronal mass ejections and flares. ApJ 559 (2001) 452CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gallagher, P.T., Dennis, B.R., Krucker, S., Schwartz, R.A., Tolbert, A.K.: RHESSI and TRACE observations of the 21 April 2002 X1.5 flare. Solar Phys 210 (2002) 341CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Forbes, T.G., Malherbe, J.M.: A shock condensation mechanism for loop prominences. ApJL 302 (1986) L67CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Masuda, S., Kosugi, T., Hudson, H.S.: A hard X-ray two-ribbon flare observed with Yohkoh/HXT. Solar Phys 204 (2001) 55CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Metcalf, T.R., Alexander, D., Hudson, H.S., Longcope, D.W.: TRACE and Yohkoh observations of a white-light flare. ApJ 595 (2003) 483CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Krucker, S., Hurford, G.J., Lin, R.P.: Hard X-ray source motions in the 2002 July 23 gamma-ray flare. ApJL 595 (2003) L103CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Svestka, Z.: Solar Flares, Dordrecht: Reidel, 1976 (1976)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Sakao, T., Kosugi, T., Masuda, S.: Energy release and particle acceleration in solar flares with respect to flaring magnetic loops. In: ASSL Vol. 229: Observational Plasma Astrophysics: Five Years of Yohkoh and Beyond. (1998) 273Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Qiu, J., Lee, J., Gary, D.E., Wang, H.: Motion of flare footpoint emission and inferred electric field in reconnecting current sheets. ApJ 565 (2002) 1335CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Asai, A., Yokoyama, T., Shimojo, M., Masuda, S., Kurokawa, H., Shibata, K.: Flare ribbon expansion and energy release rate. ApJ 611 (2004) 557CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Bogachev, S.A., Somov, B.V., Kosugi, T., Sakao, T.: The motions of the hard X-ray sources in solar flares: images and statistics. ApJ 630 (2005) 561CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Sui, L., Holman, G.D.: Evidence for the formation of a large-scale current sheet in a solar flare. ApJL 596 (2003) L251CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Sui, L., Holman, G.D., Dennis, B.R.: Evidence for magnetic reconnection in three homologous solar flares observed by RHESSI. ApJ 612 (2004) 546CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Somov, B.V.: Cosmic plasma physics. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2000. Astrophysics and space science library; v. 251 (2000)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Veronig, A., et al.: X-ray sources and magnetic reconnection in the X3.9 flare of 2003 November 3. aap (2006)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Forbes, T.G.: A review on the genesis of coronal mass ejections. JGR 105 (2000) 23, 153CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hudson, H.S.: Implosions in coronal transients. ApJl 531 (2000) L75CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Masuda, S., Kosugi, T., Hara, H., Tsuneta, S., Ogawara, Y.: A loop-top hard X-ray source in a compact solar flare as evidence for magnetic reconnection. Nature 371 (1994) 495CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Lin, R.P., Krucker, S., Hurford, G.J., Smith, D.M., Hudson, H.S., Holman, G.D., Schwartz, R.A., Dennis, B.R., Share, G.H., Murphy, R.J., Emslie, A.G., Johns-Krull, C., Vilmer, N.: RHESSI observations of particle acceleration and energy release in an intense solar gamma-ray line flare. ApJL 595 (2003) L69CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Veronig, A.M., Brown, J.C.: A coronal thick-target interpretation of two hard X-ray loop events. ApJl 603 (2004) L117CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Wheatland, M.S., Melrose, D.B.: Interpreting Yohkoh hard and soft X-ray flare observations. Solar Phys 158 (1995) 283ADSGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Fletcher, L., Martens, P.C.H.: A model for hard X-ray emission from the top of flaring loops. ApJ 505 (1998) 418CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Dauphin, C., Vilmer, N., Lüthi, T., Trottet, G., Krucker, S., Magun, A.: Modulations of broad-band radio continua and X-ray emissions in the large X-ray flare on 3 November 2003. Advances in Space Research 35 (2005) 1805CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Qiu, J., Lee, J., Gary, D.E.: Impulsive and gradual nonthermal emissions in an X-class flare. ApJ 603 (2004) 335CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Croom, D.L.: Solar millimeter bursts. In: CESRA-2, Committee of European Solar Radio Astronomers. (1971) 85Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Kaufmann, P., Raulin, J., de Castro, C.G.G., Levato, H., Gary, D.E., Costa, J.E.R., Marun, A., Pereyra, P., Silva, A.V.R., Correia, E.: A new solar burst spectral component emitting only in the terahertz range. ApJl 603 (2004) L121CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Lüthi, T., Magun, A., Miller, M.: First observation of a solar X-class flare in the submillimeter range with KOSMA. AAp 415 (2004) 1123Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Hudson, H.S.: The solar-flare infrared continuum - Observational techniques and upper limits. Solar Phys 45 (1975) 69CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Lüthi, T., Lüdi, A., Magun, A.: Determination of the location and effective angular size of solar flares with a 210 GHz multibeam radiometer. AAp 420 (2004) 361Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Ohki, K., Hudson, H.S.: The solar-flare infrared continuum. Solar Phys 43 (1975) 405CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Share, G.H., Murphy, R.J., Smith, D.M., Schwartz, R.A., Lin, R.P.: RHESSI e+-e- Annihilation radiation observations: implications for conditions in the flaring solar chromosphere. ApJL 615 (2004) L169CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Xu, Y., Cao, W., Liu, C., Yang, G., Qiu, J., Jing, J., Denker, C., Wang, H.: Near-infrared observations at 1.56μ of the 2003 October 29 X10 white-light flare. ApJl 607 (2004) L131CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Lingenfelter, R.E., Ramaty, R.: On the origin of solar flare microwave radio bursts. PSS 15 (1967) 1303Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Raulin, J.P., Kaufmann, P., Olivieri, R., Correia, E., Makhmutov, V.S., Magun, A.: Time and space distribution of discrete energetic releases in millimeter-wave solar bursts. ApJl 498 (1998) L173CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Leibacher, J.W., Harvey, J.W., Kopp, G., Hudson, H., GONG Team: Remarkable low-temperature emission of the 4 November 2003 limb flare. American Astronomical Society Meeting 204 (2004)Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Dauphin, C., Vilmer, N., Krucker, S.: Observations of soft X-ray rising loops associated with a type II and CME emission in the large X-ray flare on 3 November 2003. AAp (2006)Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Khan, J.I., Vilmer, N., Saint-Hilaire, P., Benz, A.O.: The solar coronal origin of a slowly drifting decimetric-metric pulsation structure. AAp 388 (2002) 363ADSGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Klein, K.L., Trottet, G.: The Origin of solar energetic particle events: coronal acceleration versus shock wave acceleration}. Space Science Reviews 95 (2001) 215CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Emslie, A.G., Dennis, B.R., Holman, G.D., Hudson, H.S.: Refinements to flare energy estimates: A followup to “Energy partition in two solar flare/CME events” by A.G. Emslie et al. Journal of Geophysical Research (Space Physics) 110 (2005) 11, 103Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Ramaty, R., Mandzhavidze, N., Kozlovsky, B., Murphy, R.J.: Solar atmopheric abundances and energy content in flare-accelerated Ions from γ-ray spectroscopy. ApJl 455 (1995) L193CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Klein, K.L., Schwartz, R.A., McTiernan, J.M., Trottet, G., Klassen, A., Lecacheux, A.: An upper limit of the number and energy of electrons accelerated at an extended coronal shock wave. AAp 409 (2003) 317ADSGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Brown, J.C., Hoyng, P.: Betatron acceleration in a large solar hard X-ray burst. ApJ 200 (1975) 734CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Karlický, M., Kosugi, T.: Acceleration and heating processes in a collapsing magnetic trap. AAp 419 (2004) 1159ADSGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Giuliani, P., Neukirch, T., Wood, P.: Particle motion in collapsing magnetic traps in solar flares. I. kinematic theory of collapsing magnetic traps. ApJ 635 (2005) 636CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Piana, M., Massone, A.M., Kontar, E.P., Emslie, A.G., Brown, J.C., Schwartz, R.A.: Regularized electron flux spectra in the 2002 July 23 solar flare. ApJL 595 (2003) L127CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Kontar, E.P., Emslie, A.G., Piana, M., Massone, A.M., Brown, J.C.: Determination of electron flux spectra in a solar flare with an augmented regularization method: Application to RHESSI data. Solar Phys 226 (2005) 317CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Hamilton, B., McClements, K.G., Fletcher, L., Thyagaraja, A.: Field-guided proton acceleration at reconnecting X-points in flares. Solar Phys 214 (2003) 339CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hamilton, B., Fletcher, L., McClements, K.G., Thyagaraja, A.: Electron acceleration at reconnecting X-points in solar flares. ApJ 625 (2005) 496CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Dalla, S., Browning, P.K.: Particle acceleration at a three-dimensional reconnection site in the solar corona. AAp 436 (2005) 1103ADSGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Efthymiopoulos, C., Gontikakis, C., Anastasiadis, A.: Particle dynamics in 3-D reconnecting current sheets in the solar atmosphere. AAp 443 (2005) 663ADSGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Zharkova, V.V., Gordovskyy, M.: Particle acceleration asymmetry in a reconnecting nonneutral current sheet. ApJ 604 (2004) 884CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Hurford, G.J., Schwartz, R.A., Krucker, S., Lin, R.P., Smith, D.M., Vilmer, N.: First γ-ray images of a solar flare. ApJl 595 (2003) L77CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Miller, J.A., Cargill, P.J., Emslie, A.G., Holman, G.D., Dennis, B.R., LaRosa, T.N., Winglee, R.M., Benka, S.G., Tsuneta, S.: Critical issues for understanding particle acceleration in impulsive solar flares. JGR 102 (1997) 14, 631Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Mel’nikov, V.F., Reznikova, V.E., Yokoyama, T., Shibasaki, K.: Spectral dynamics of mildly relativistic electrons in extended flaring loops. In: ESA SP-506: Solar Variability: From Core to Outer Frontiers. (2002) 339Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    White, S.M., Krucker, S., Shibasaki, K., Yokoyama, T., Shimojo, M., Kundu, M.R.: Radio and hard X-ray images of high-energy electrons in an X-class solar flare. ApJl 595 (2003) L111CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Fleishman, G.D., Mel’nikov, V.F.: Optically thick gyrosynchrotron emission from anisotropic electron distributions. ApJ 584 (2003) 1071CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Fleishman, G.D., Mel’nikov, V.F.: Gyrosynchrotron emission from anisotropic electron distributions. ApJ 587 (2003) 823CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Trottet, G., Vilmer, N., Barat, C., Benz, A., Magun, A., Kuznetsov, A., Sunyaev, R., Terekhov, O.: A multiwavelength analysis of an electron-dominated gamma-ray event associated with a disk solar flare. AAp 334 (1998) 1099ADSGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Vilmer, N., Trottet, G., Barat, C., Schwartz, R.A., Enome, S., Kuznetsov, A., Sunyaev, R., Terekhov, O.: Hard X-ray and γ-ray observations of an electron-dominated event associated with an occulted solar flare. AAp 342 (1999) 575ADSGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Smith, D.M., Share, G.H., Murphy, R.J., Schwartz, R.A., Shih, A.Y., Lin, R.P.: High-resolution spectroscopy of γ-ray lines from the X-class solar flare of 2002 July 23. ApJl 595 (2003) L81CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Share, G.H., Murphy, R.J., Skibo, J.G., Smith, D.M., Hudson, H.S., Lin, R.P., Shih, A.Y., Dennis, B.R., Schwartz, R.A., Kozlovsky, B.: High-resolution observation of the solar positron-electron annihilation line. ApJL 595 (2003) L85CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    White, S.M.: Radio measurements of coronal magnetic fields. In: ESA SP-596: Chromospheric and Coronal Magnetic Fields. (2005)Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Huang, G., Zhou, A., Su, Y., Zhang, J.: Calculations of the low-cutoff energy of non-thermal electrons in solar microwave and hard X-ray bursts. New Astronomy 10 (2005) 219CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Bastian, T.S., Benz, A.O., Gary, D.E.: Radio emission from solar flares. ARAA 36 (1998) 131CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Toner, M.P., MacKinnon, A.L.: Do fast protons and α particles have the same energy distributions in solar flares? Solar Phys 223 (2004) 155CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Klein, K.L.: Microwave radiation from a dense magneto-active plasma. AAp 183 (1987) 341ADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hugh Hudson
    • 1
  • Nicole Vilmer
    • 2
  1. 1.SSL/UCB BerkeleyCA
  2. 2.LESIAObservatoire de ParisFrance

Personalised recommendations