The Human Role in Telerobotics

  • Rafael Aracil
  • Martin Buss
  • Salvador Cobos
  • Manuel Ferre
  • Sandra Hirche
  • Martin Kuschel
  • Angelika Peer
Part of the Springer Tracts in Advanced Robotics book series (STAR, volume 31)


This chapter introduces the main topics of a telerobotic system. It describes the architecture of such a system from a general point of view and emphasizes the interaction between a human operator and a robot that performs the task in the remote environment. Furthermore it focuses on multi-modal human system interfaces and explains the main features of haptic, auditory, and visual interfaces. Finally important issues for the measurement and evaluation of the attribute telepresence are described.


Virtual Environment Haptic Device Stereoscopic Image Haptic Interface Remote Environment 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    T.B. Sheridan. Telerobotics. Automatica, 25(4):487–507, 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    M. Buss and G. Schmidt. Control Problems in Multimodal Telepresence. In Advances in Control: Highlights of the 5th European Control Conference ECC’99, pages 65–101, 1999.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    T. Burkert, J. Leupold, and G. Passig. A photorealistic predictive display. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 13(1):22–43, 2004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    N. Chong, S. Kawabata, K. Ohba, T. Kotoku, K. Komoriya, K. Takase, and K. Tanie. Multioperator teleoperation of multirobot systems with time-delay: part 1-aids for collision-free control. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 11(3):277–291, 2002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    N.A. Tanner and G. Niemeyer. Improving perception in time delayed telerobotics. International Journal of Robotics Research, 24(8):631–644, 2005.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    M. Massimino and T. Sheridan. Sensory Substitution for Force Feedback in Teleoperation. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 2(4):344–352, 1993.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    M. Buss. Study on Intelligent Cooperative Manipulation. PhD thesis, University of Tokyo, Tokyo, 1994.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Buss and H. Hashimoto. Motion Scheme for Dextrous Manipulation in the Intelligent Cooperative Manipulation System—ICMS. In V. Graefe, editor, Intelligent Robots and Systems (IROS’94). Post-Conference Book, pages 279–294, Elsevier Science, Amsterdam, 1995.Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    N. Delson and H. West. Robot programming by human demonstration: Subtask compliance controller identification. In Proceedings of the IEEE/RSJ International Conference on Intelligent Robots and Systems IROS, pages 33–41, Yokohama, Japan, 1993.Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    H. Friedrich, J. Holle, and R. Dillmann. Interactive Generation of Flexible Robot Programs. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pages 538–543, Leuven, Belgium, 1998.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Y. Kunii and H. Hashimoto. Tele-teaching by human demonstration in virtual environment for robotic network system. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Albuquerque, New Mexico, pages 405–410, 1997.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    J. Yang, Y. Xu, and C. Chen. Hidden markov model approach to skill learning and its application to telerobotics. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pages 396–402, Atlanta, Georgia, 1993.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    H. Baier, M. Buss, F. Freyberger, and G. Schmidt G. Interactive Stereo Vision Telepresence for Correct Communication of Spatial Geometry. In Advanced Robotics, 17(3):219–233, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    R.E. Cole and D.L. Parker. Stereo TV improves manipulator performance. In Proceedings of the SPIE, 1083:18–27, Bellingham, WA, 1990.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    M. Ferre, R. Aracil, and M. Navas. Stereoscopic Video Images for Telerobotic Applications. Journal of Robotic Systems, 22(3):131–146, 2005.zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    J. Hsu, Z. Pizlo, D.M. Chelberg, C.F. Babbs, and E.J. Delp. Issues in the design of studies to test the effectiveness of stereo imaging. IEEE Trans. Syst. Man Cybernetics, Part A 26(6):810–819, 1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    L.B. Stelmach, W.J. Tam, and D.V. Meegan. Perceptual Basis of Stereoscopic Video. In Proceedings of the SPIE, 3639:260–265, 1999.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    W.S. Kim, S. Won, E. Stephen, T. Mitchell, H. Blake, and S. Lawrence. Quantitative evaluation of perspective and stereoscopic displays in three-axis manual tracking tasks. IEEE Trans Syst Man Cybernetics, 17(1):418–425, 1987.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    E.B. Goldstein. Sensation and Perception. Wadsworth Publishing Company, 2002.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    E.B. Goldstein. Cognitive Psychology. Wadsworth Publishing Company, 2004.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    G. Burdea. Force and Touch Feedback for Virtual Reality. John Wiley and Sons Inc., 1996.Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    S.D. Laycock and A.M. Day. Recent developments and applications of haptic devices. Computer Graphics Forum, 22(2):117–132, 2003.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    J. Martins and J. Savall. Mechanisms for haptic torque feedback. In Proceedings of the First Joint Eurohaptics Conference and Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems, pages 611–614, 2005.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    C. Yongblut, R.E. Johnston, S.H. Nash, R.A. Wienclaw, and C.A. Will. Review of virtual environment interface technology. IDA Paper P-3186, Institute of Defense Analysis (IDA), 1996.Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    M. Benali-Khoudja, et al. Tactile interfaces: a state-of-the-art survey. In Proceedings of 35th International Symposium on Robotics (ISR 2004), Paris, pages 1–9, 2004.Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    A. Kron and G. Schmidt. Multi-fingered tactile feedback from virtual and remote environments. In Proceedings of the 11th Symposium on Haptic Interfaces for Virtual Environment and Teleoperator Systems (HAPTICS), pages 16–23, 2003.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    K.A. Kaczmarek and P. Bach-y-Rita. Tactile displays. Virtual environments and advanced interface design, Oxford, England, Oxford University Press, 1993.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    K. Shimoga. A Survey of Perceptual Feedback Issues in Dextrous Telemanipulation: Part II. Finger Touch Feedback. In Proceedings of IEEE Virtual Reality Annual International Symposium, New York, pages 271–279, 1993.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    S. Ino, T. Izumi, M. Takahashi, and T. Ifukube. Psychophysical study on tactile sense produced by grasping forhand with sensory feedback. Systems and Computers in Japan, 24(13):89–97, 1993.Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    B.G. Witmer and M.J. Singer. Measuring Presence in Virtual Environments: A Presence Questionnaire. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, Presence 7(3):225–240, 1998.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    T.B. Sheridan. Musings on Telepresence and Virtual Presence. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 1(1):120–126, 1992.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    D. Schloerb. A Quantitative Measure of Telepresence. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 4(1):64–80, 1995.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    W.A. IJsselsteijn, H. de Ridder, J. Freemanand, and S.E. Avons. Presence: Concept, determinants and measurement. In Proceedings of the SPIE, 3959:520–529, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    M. Usoh, E. Catena, S. Arman, and M. Slater. Using Presence Questionaires in Reality. Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 9(5):497–503, 2000.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    B. Hannaford. A Design Framework for Teleoperators with Kinesthetic Feedback. IEEE Trans. on Robotics and Automation, 5(4):426–434, 1989.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Y. Yokokohji and T. Yoshikawa. Bilateral Control of Master-Slave Manipulators for Ideal Kinesthetic Coupling-Formulation and Experiment. IEEE Trans. on Robotics and Automation, 10(5):605–620, 1994.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    D.A. Lawrence. Stability and Transparency in Bilateral Teleoperation. IEEE Trans. on Robotics and Automation, 9:624–637, 1993.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Rafael Aracil
    • 1
  • Martin Buss
    • 2
  • Salvador Cobos
    • 1
  • Manuel Ferre
    • 1
  • Sandra Hirche
    • 2
  • Martin Kuschel
    • 2
  • Angelika Peer
    • 2
  1. 1.Dpto. de Automática, Ingeniería Electrónica e Informática IndustrialUniversidad Politécnica de MadridMadridSpain
  2. 2.Institute of Automatic Control Engineering (LSR)Technische Universität MünchenMunichGermany

Personalised recommendations