Advertisement

Tuberculosis: A Reemerging Disease at the Interface of Domestic Animals and Wildlife

  • M. V. Palmer
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 315)

Complex interactions involving humans, domestic animals, and wildlife create environments favorable to the emergence of new diseases. Today, reservoirs of Mycobacterium bovis, the causative agent of tuberculosis in animals and a serious zoonosis, exist in wildlife. The presence of these wildlife reservoirs is the direct result of spillover from domestic livestock in combination with anthropogenic factors such as translocation of wildlife, supplemental feeding of wildlife and wildlife populations reaching densities beyond normal habitat carrying capacities. As many countries attempt to eradicate M. bovis from domestic livestock, efforts are impeded by spillback from wildlife reservoirs. It will not be possible to eradicate M. bovis from livestock until transmission between wildlife and domestic animals is halted. Such an endeavor will require a collaborative effort between agricultural, wildlife, environmental and political interests.

Keywords

Wild Boar Supplemental Feeding Fallow Deer Mycobacterium Bovis Deer Density 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aldwell FE, Keen DL, Stent VC, Thomson A, Yates GF, de Lisle GW, Buddle BM (1995a) Route of BCG administration in possums affects protection against bovine tuberculosis. N Z Vet J 43:356–359.Google Scholar
  2. Aldwell FE, Pfeiffer A, de Lisle GW, Jowett G, Heslop J, Keen D, Thomson A, Buddle BM (1995b) Effectiveness of BCG vaccination in protecting possums against bovine tuberculosis. Res Vet Sci 58:90–95.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Anonymous (1997) TB in cattle and badgers: review group advocates an investigative approach. Vet Rec 141:636.Google Scholar
  4. Anonymous (2002) Resolution by the Wildlife Disease Association and the Society for Tropical Veterinary Medicine calling for international donor community recognition of animal health sciences as critical for the design and management of sustainable wildlife and/or livestock based programs. Ann N Y Acad Sci 969: 364–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aranaz A, de Juan L, Montero N, Sanchez C, Galka M, Delso C, Alvarez J, Romero B, Bezos J, Vela AI, Briones V, Mateos A, Dominguez L (2004) Bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) in wildlife in Spain. J Clin Microbiol 42:2602–2608.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Barlow NE (1991) A spatially aggregated disease/host model for bovine TB in New Zealand possum populations. J Appl Ecol 28:777–793.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beatson NS (1985) Tuberculosis in red deer in New Zealand. In: Fennessy PF, Drew KR (eds) Biology of deer production. R Soc N Z 22:147–150.Google Scholar
  8. Belli LB (1962) Bovine tuberculosis in a white-tailed deer. Can Vet J 3:356–358.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Bollinger A, Bolliger W (1948) Experimental transmission of tuberculosis to Trichosurus vulpecula. Aust J Sci 10:182–183.Google Scholar
  10. Bouvier G (1963) Possible transmission of tuberculosis and brucellosis from game animals to man and to domestic animals. Bull Off Inter Epiz 59:433–436.Google Scholar
  11. Bruning-Fann CS Schmitt SM, Fitzgerald SD, Payeur JB, Whipple DL, Cooley TM, Carlson T, Friedrich P (1998)Mycobacterium bovis in coyotes from Michigan. J Wildl Dis 34:632–636.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. Bruning-Fann CS, Schmitt SM, Fitzgerald SD, Fjerke JS, Friedrich PD, Kaneene JB, Clarke KA, Butler KL, Payeur JB, Whipple DL, Cooley TM, Miller JM, Muzo DP (2001) Bovine tuberculosis in free-ranging carnivores from Michigan. J Wildl Dis 37:58–64.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Buddle BM, Aldwell FE, Keen DL, Parlane NA, Yates G, de Lisle GW (1997) Intraduodenal vaccination of brushtail possums with bacilli Calmette-Guerin enhances immune responses and protection againstMycobacterium bovis infection. Int J Tub Lung Dis 1:377–383.Google Scholar
  14. Caley P, Hickling GJ, Cowan PE, Pfeiffer DU (1999) Effects of sustained control of brushtail possums on levels of Mycobacterium bovis infection in cattle and brushtail possum population from Hohotaka New Zealand. N Z Vet J 47:133–142.Google Scholar
  15. Cheeseman CL, Wilesmith JW, Stuart FA, Mallinson PJ (1988) Dynamics of tuberculosis in a naturally infected badger population. Mammal Rev 18:61–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cheeseman CL, Wilesmith JW, Stuart FA (1989) Tuberculosis: the disease and its epidemiology in the badger, a review. Epidem Infect 103:113–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Collins DM, Gabric DM, de Lisle GW (1988) Typing of Mycobacterium bovis isolates from cattle and other animals in the same locality. N Z Vet J 36:45–46.Google Scholar
  18. Cooke MM, Jackson R, Coleman JD, Alley MR (1995) Naturally occurring tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis in brushtail possums ( Trichosurus vulpecula): II. Pathology. N Z Vet J 43:315–321.Google Scholar
  19. Corner LAL, Buddle B.M, Pfeiffer DU, Morris RS (2001) Aerosol vaccination of the brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula) with bacilli Calmette-Guerin: the duration of protection. Vet Microbiol 81:181–191.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Corner LAL, Pfeiffer DU, Buddle B.M, and Morris RS (2003) Social-network analysis of Mycobacterium bovis transmission among captive brushtail possums ( Trichosurus vulpecula) Prev Vet Med 59:147–167.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Cousins DV, Dawson DJ (1999) Tuberculosis due toMycobacterium bovis in the Australian population: cases recorded during 1970–1994. Int J Tub Lung Dis 3:715–721.Google Scholar
  22. Donnelly CA, Woodroffe R, Cox ER, Bourne J, Gettinby G, Le Fevre AM, McInerney JP, Morrison WI (2003) Impact of localized badger culling on tuberculosis incidence in British cattle. Nature 426:834–837.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Duffield BJ, Young DA (1985) Survival ofMycobacterium bovis in defined environmental conditions. Vet Microbiol 10:193–197.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Ekdahl MO, Smith BL, Money DFL (1970) Tuberculosis in some wild and feral animals in New Zealand. N Z Vet J 18:44–45.Google Scholar
  25. Fanning A, Edwards S (1991)Mycobacterium bovis infection in human beings in contact with elk (Cervus elaphus) in Alberta Canada. Lancet 338:1253–1255.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Ferris DH, Beamer PD, Alberts JO, Trainer D (1961) Tuberculosis in transported deer. J Am Vet Med Assoc 138:326–328.Google Scholar
  27. Fitzgerald SD, Kaneene JB, Butler KL, Clarke KR, Fierke JS, Schmitt SM, Bruning-Fann CS, Mitchell RR, Berry DE, Payeur JB (2000) Comparison of postmortem techniques for the detection ofMycobacterium bovis in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). J Vet Diag Invest 12:322–327.Google Scholar
  28. Friend M, Kroll ET, Gruft H (1963) Tuberculosis in a wild white-tailed deer. N Y Fish Game J 10:118–123.Google Scholar
  29. Frye GH (1995) Bovine tuberculosis eradication: the program in the United States. In: Thoen CO, Steele JH (eds) Mycobacterium bovis infection in animals and humans. Iowa State University Press, Ames IA, pp 119–129.Google Scholar
  30. Gallagher J, Muirhead RH, Burn KJ (1976) Tuberculosis in wild badgers (Meles meles) in Gloucestershire: Pathology. Vet Rec 98:9–14.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Garnett BT, Roper TJ, Delahay RJ (2003) Use of cattle troughs by badgers (Meles meles): a potential route for the transmission of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis) to cattle. Appl Anim Beh Sci 80:1–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gavier-Widen D, Chambers MA, Palmer N, Newell DG, Hewinson RG (2001) Pathology of naturalMycobacterium bovis infection in European badgers (Meles meles) and its relationship with bacterial excretion. Vet Rec 148:299–304.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Grange JM, Yates MD (1994) Zoonotic aspects ofMycobacterium bovis infection. Vet Microbiol 40:137–151.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Hutchings MR, Harris S (1997) Effects of farm management practices on cattle grazing. Behaviour and the potential for transmission of bovine tuberculosis from badgers to cattle. Vet J 153:149–162.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Jackson R (2002) The role of wildlife in Mycobacterium bovis infection of livestock in New Zealand. N Z Vet J 50:49–52.Google Scholar
  36. Jackson R, Cooke MM, Coleman JD, Morris RS (1995a) Naturally occurring tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis in brushtail possums ( Trichosurus vulpecula): I. An epidemiologic analysis of lesion distribution. N Z Vet J 43:306–315.Google Scholar
  37. Jackson R, Cooke MM, Coleman JD, Morris RS, de Lisle GW, Yates GF (1995b) Naturally occurring tuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium bovis in brushtail possums ( Trichosurus vulpecula): III. Routes of infection and excretion. N Z Vet J 43:322–327.Google Scholar
  38. Jackson R, de Lisle GW, Morris RS (1995c) A study of the environmental survival of Mycobacterium bovis on a farm in New Zealand. N Z Vet J 43:346–352.Google Scholar
  39. Kaneene JB, Bruning-Fann CS, Dunn J, Mullaney TP, Berry D, Massey JP, Thoen CO, Halstead S, Schwartz K (2002) Epidemiologic investigation ofMycobacterium bovis in a population of cats. Am J Vet Res 63:1507–1511.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Krebs JR, Anderson RM, Clutton-Brock T, Donnelly CA, Frost S, Morrison WI, Woodroffe R, Young D (1998) Badgers and bovine TB: conflicts between conservation and health. Science 279:817–818.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Levine PP (1934) A report on tuberculosis in wild deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) Cornell Vet 24:264–266.Google Scholar
  42. Little TWA, Naylor PF, Wilesmith JW (1982) Laboratory study ofMycobacterium bovis infection in badgers and calves. Vet Rec 111:550–557.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Lugton IW, Wilson PR, Morris RS, Nugent G (1998) Epidemiology and pathogenesis of Mycobacterium bovis infection of red deer ( Cervus elaphus) in New Zealand. N Z Vet J 46:147–156.Google Scholar
  44. McCarty CW, Miller MW (1998) A versatile model of disease transmission applied to forecasting bovine tuberculosis dynamics in white-tailed deer populations. J Wildl Dis 34:722–730.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Miller R, Kaneene JB, Fitzgerald SD, Schmitt SM (2003) Evaluation of the influence of supplemental feeding of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) on the prevalence of bovine tuberculosis in the Michigan wild deer population. J Wildl Dis 39:84–95.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Muirhead RH, Gallagher J, Burn KJ (1974) Tuberculosis in wild badgers in Gloucestershire: epidemiology. Vet Rec 95:552–555.Google Scholar
  47. Noonan NL, Sheane WD, Harper LR, Ryan PJ (1975) Wildlife as a possible reservoir of bovine tuberculosis. Irish Vet J 29:1.Google Scholar
  48. O’Brien DJ, Fitzgerald SD, Lyon TJ, Butler JL, Fierke JS, Clarke KR, Schmitt SM, Cooley TM, Berry DE (2001) Tuberculous lesions in free-ranging white-tailed deer in Michigan. J Wildl Dis 37:608–613.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. O’Brien DJ, Schmitt SM, Fierke JS, Hogle SA, Winterstein SR, Cooley TM, Moritz WE, Diegel KL, Fitzgerald SD, Berry DE, Kaneene JB (2002) Epidemiology ofMycobacterium bovis in free-ranging white-tailed deer Michigan USA, 1995–2000. Prev Vet Med 54:47–63.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. O’Neill BD, Pharo HJ (1995) The control of bovine tuberculosis in New Zealand. N Z Vet J 43:249–255.Google Scholar
  51. Palmer MV, Whipple DL, Olsen SC (1999) Development of a model of natural infection withMycobacterium bovis in white-tailed deer. J Wildl Dis 35:450–457.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. Palmer MV, Whipple DL, Payeur JB, Alt DP, Esch KJ, Bruning-Fann CS, Kaneene JB (2000) Naturally occurring tuberculosis in white-tailed deer. J Am Vet Med Assoc. 216:1921–1924.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. Palmer MV, Whipple DL, Waters WR (2001) Experimental deer to deer transmission of Mycobacterium bovis. Am J Vet Res 62:692–696.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Palmer MV, Waters WR, Whipple DL (2002) Milk containingMycobacterium bovis as a source of infection for white-tailed deer fawns (Odocoileus virginianus). Tuberculosis 82:161–165.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Palmer MV, Waters WR, Whipple DL (2003) Aerosol exposure of white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) to Mycobacterium bovis. J Wildl Dis 39:817–823.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Palmer MV, Waters WR, Whipple DL (2004a) Investigation of the transmission ofMycobacterium bovis from deer to cattle through indirect contact. Am J Vet Res 65:1483–1489.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Palmer MV, Waters WR, Whipple DL (2004b) Shared feed as a means of deer-to-deer transmission of Mycobacterium bovis. J Wildl Dis 40:87–91.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Palmer MV, Whipple DL (2006) Survival of Mycobacterium bovis on feedstuff commonly used as supplemental feed for white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). J Wild Dis 42:853–858.Google Scholar
  59. Paterson BM, Morris RS (1995) Interactions between beef cattle and simulated tuberculous possums on pasture. N Z Vet J 43:289–293.Google Scholar
  60. Paterson BM, Morris RS, Weston J, Cowan PE (1995) Foraging and denning patterns of brushtail possums, and their possible relationship to contact with cattle and the transmission of bovine tuberculosis. N Z Vet J 43:281–288.Google Scholar
  61. Robinson P, Morris D, Antic R (1988) Mycobacterium bovis as an occupational hazard in abattoir workers. Aust N Z J Med 18:701–703.Google Scholar
  62. Robinson RC, Phillips PH, Stevens G, Storm PA (1989) An outbreak ofMycobacterium bovis infection in fallow deer (Dama dama). Aust Vet J 66:195–197.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Rogers LM, Delahay R, Cheeseman CL, Langton S, Smith GC, Clifton-Hadley RS (1998) Movement of badgers ( Meles meles) in a high density population: individual, population and disease effects. Proc Ro Soc Lond B 265:1269–1276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sauter CM, Morris RS (1995) Behavioural studies on the potential for direct transmission of tuberculosis from feral ferrets ( Mustela furo) and possums ( Trichosurus vulpecula) to farmed livestock. N Z Vet J 43:294–300.Google Scholar
  65. Scantlebury M, Hutchings MR, Allcroft DJ, Harris S (2004) Risk of disease from wildlife reservoirs: badgers, cattle and bovine tuberculosis. J Dairy Sci 87:330–339.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Schmitt SM, Fitzgerald SD, Cooley TM, Bruning-Fann CS, Sullivan L, Berry D, Carlson T, Minnis RB, Payeur JB, Sikarskie J (1997) Bovine tuberculosis in free-ranging white-tailed deer from Michigan. J Wildl Dis 33:749–758.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. Schmitt SM, O’Brien DJ, Bruning-Fann CS, Fitzgerald SD (2002) Bovine tuberculosis in Michigan wildlife and livestock. Ann N Y Acad Sci 969:262–268.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Serraino A, Marchetti G, Sanguinetti V, Rossi MC, Zanoni RG, Catozzi L, Bandera A, Dini W, Mignone W, Franzetti F, Gori A (1999) Monitoring of transmission of tuberculosis between wild boars and cattle: genotypical analysis of strains by molecular epidemiology techniques. J Clin Microbiol 37:2766–2771.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Smith RMM, Drobniewski F, Gibson A, Montague JDE, Logan MN, Hunt D, Hewinson G, Salmon RL, O’Neill B (2004)Mycobacterium bovis infection United Kingdom. Emerg Infect Dis 10:539–541.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Steele JH (1995) Regional and country status reports. In: Thoen CO, Steele JH (eds) Mycobacterium bovis infection in animals and humans. Iowa State University Press, Ames, IA, pp 169–171.Google Scholar
  71. Tanner M, Michel AL (1999) Investigation of the viability ofMycobacterium bovis under different environmental conditions in the Kruger National Park. Onderst J Vet Res 66:185–190.Google Scholar
  72. Tuyttens FAM, Delahay RJ, MacDonald DW, Cheeseman CL, Long B, Donnelly CA (2000) Spatial perturbation caused by a badger (Meles meles) culling operation: implications for the function of territoriality and the control of bovine tuberculosis (Mycobacterium bovis). J Anim Ecol 69:815–828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Tweddle NE, Livingstone P (1994) Bovine tuberculosis control and eradication programs in Australia and New Zealand. Vet Microbiol 40:23–29.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Whipple DL, Palmer MV (2000) Survival of Mycobacterium bovis on feeds used for baiting white-tailed deer ( Odocoileus virginianus) in Michigan. In: Proceedings of the = 49th Annual Wildlife Disease Assocociation, p 21.Google Scholar
  75. Whipple DL, Meyer RM, Berry DF, Jarnigan JL, Payeur JB (1997) Molecular epidemiology of tuberculosis in wild white-tailed deer in Michigan and elephants. In: Proc U S Anim Health Assoc 543–546.Google Scholar
  76. Whipple DL, Jarnagin JL, Payeur JB (1999) DNA fingerprinting of Mycobacterium bovis isolates from animals in northeast Michigan. In: Proceedings for the IX International Symposium and World Association of Veternary Laboratory Diagnosis, p 83.Google Scholar
  77. Whiting TL, Tessaro SV (1994) An abattoir study of tuberculosis in a herd of farmed elk. Can Vet J 35:497–501.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Wigle W, Ashley MJ, Killough EM, Cosens M (1972) Bovine tuberculosis in humans in Ontario. Am Rev Resp Dis 106:528–534.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. Wilkins MJ, Bartlett PC, Frawley B, O’Brien DJ, Miller CE, Boulton ML (2003)Mycobacterium bovis (bovine TB) exposure as a recreational risk for hunters: results of a Michigan Hunter Survey, 2001. Int J Lung Dis 7:1001–1009.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. V. Palmer
    • 1
  1. 1.Bacterial Diseases of Livestock Research UnitNational Animal Disease Center, Agricultural Research ServiceAmesUSA

Personalised recommendations