Emergence of Lyssaviruses in the Old World: The Case of Africa

  • L. H. Nel
  • C. E. Rupprecht
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 315)

Rabies has a long history of occurrence throughout Africa, spanning hundreds of years. At least four distinct Lyssavirus species persist throughout the continent, among carnivores, bats and other mammals. Rabies virus is the most cosmopolitan member, with primary reservoirs within dogs and mongoose, but other wildlife vectors are important in viral maintenance, such as jackals. Besides a prominent toll on humans and domestic animals, the disease has an underappreciated role in conservation biology, especially for such highly endangered fauna as African wild dogs and Ethiopian wolves. Both Duvenhage and Lagos bat viruses are adapted to bats, but their epidemiology, together with Mokola virus, is poorly understood. Significantly, less than ideal crossreactivity with modern biologicals used for veterinary and public health interventions is a major cause for concern among these emerging viral agents.


Rabies Virus Human Rabies Lumpy Skin Disease Virus Ethiopian Wolf Rabies Outbreak 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Aubert FA (1999) Rabies in individual countries: France. Rabies Bull Eur 23:6.Google Scholar
  2. Aghomo HO, Tomori O, Oduye OO, Rupprecht CE (1990) Detection of Mokola virus neutralizing antibodies in Nigerian dogs. Res Vet Sci 48:264.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Alexander KA, Kat PW, Wayne RK, Fuller TK (1994) Serologic survey of selected canine pathogens among free-ranging jackals in Kenya. J Wild Dis 30:486–491.Google Scholar
  4. Alexander RA (1952) Rabies in South Africa: a review of the present position. J South Afr Vet Med Assoc 23:135–139.Google Scholar
  5. Anilionis A, Wunner WH, Curtis PJ (1981) Structure of the glycoprotein gene in rabies virus. Nature 294:275–278.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Aspden K, van Dijk A, Bingham J, Cox D, Passmore JA, Williamson AL (2002) Immunogenicity of a recombinant lumpy skin disease virus (neetling vaccine strain) expressing the rabies virus glycoprotein in cattle. Vaccine 20:2693–2701.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Aspden K, Passmore J, Tiedt F, Williamson AL (2003) Evaluation of lumpy skin disease virus, a capripoxvirus, as a replication-deficient vaccine vector. J Gen Virol 84:1985–1996.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Badrane H, Tordo N (2001) Host switching in Lyssavirus history from the Chiroptera to the Carnivora orders. J Virol 17:8096–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Badrane H, Bahloul C, Perrin P, Tordo N (2001) Evidence of two Lyssavirus phylogroups with distinct pathogenicity and immunogenicity. J Virol 75:3268–3276.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Bahloul C, Jacob Y, Tordo N, Perrin P (1998) DNA-based immunization for exploring the enlargement of immunological cross-reactivity against the lyssaviruses. Vaccine 16:417–425.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Barnard BJH, Hassel RH (1981) Rabies in kudus (Tragelaphus strepsiceros) in South West Africa/Namibia. J South Afr Vet Assoc 52:309–314.Google Scholar
  12. Barnard BJH, Hassel RH, Geyer HJ and de Koker WC (1982) Non-bite transmission of rabies in kudu (Tragelaphus strepsiceros). Onderstepoort J Vet Res 49:191–219.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Bateman C (2005) AIDS fuels ownerless feral dog populations. SAMJ 95:78–79.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Bauer SP, Murphy FA (1975) Relationship of two arthropod-borne rhabdoviruses (kotonkan and Ododhiang) to the rabies serogroup. Infect Immun 12:1157–1172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Belotto A, Leanes LF, Schneider MC, Tamayo H, Correa E (2005) Overview of rabies in the Americas. Virus Res 111:5–12.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Bingham J (2005) Canine rabies ecology in southern Africa. Emerg Infect Dis 11:1337–1342.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Bingham J, Foggin CM, Wandeler AI, Hill FWG (1999) The epidemiology of rabies in Zimbabwe. 1. Rabies in dogs (Canis familiaris). Onderstepoort J Vet Res 66:1–10.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Bingham J, Javangwe S, Sabeta CT, Wandeler AI, Nel LH (2001) Report of isolations of unusual lyssaviruses (rabies and Mokola virus) Identified retrospectively from Zimbabwe. J South Afr Vet Assoc 72:92–94.Google Scholar
  19. Blancou J (1988) Epizootiology of rabies: Eurasia and Africa. In: Campbell JB, Charlton KM (eds) Rabies (eds) Kluwer Academic, Boston.Google Scholar
  20. Botvinkin AD, Poleschuk EM, Kuzmin IV, Borisova TI, Gazaryan SV, Yager P, Rupprecht CE (2003) Novel lyssaviruses isolated from bats in Russia. Emerg Infect Dis 9:1623–1625.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Bouffard G (1912) Sur l’existence de la rage dans le Haut-Senégal et le Niger. Ann Inst Pasteur 26:727–731.Google Scholar
  22. Boulger LR, Porterfield JS (1958) Isolation of a virus from Nigerian fruit bats. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 52:421–424.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Bourhy H, Kissi B, Tordo N (1993) Molecular diversity of theLyssavirus genus. Virology 194:70–81.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Britton TA (1894) Report upon the outbreak of rabies at Port Elizabeth during the year 1893. Cape of Good Hope Department of Agriculture.Google Scholar
  25. Burrows R (1994) Rabies in African wild dogs of Tanzania. J Wild Dis 30:297–302.Google Scholar
  26. Calisher CH, Karabatsos N, Zeller H, Digoutte JP, Tesh RB, Travassos da Rosa AP, St George TD (1989) Antigenic relationships among rhabdoviruses from vertebrates and hematophagous arthropods. InterVirol 30:241–257.Google Scholar
  27. Courtin F, Carpenter TE, Paskin RD, Chomel BB (2000) Temporal patterns of domestic and wildlife rabies in central Namibia stock-ranching area, 1986–1996. Prev Vet Med 43:13–28.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Creel S, Creel NM, Munson L, Sanderlin D, Appel MJ (1997) Serosurvey for selected viral diseases and demography of African wild dogs in Tanzania. J Wild Dis 33:823–832.Google Scholar
  29. Crick J, Tigmor GH, Moreno K (1982) A new isolate of Lagos bat virus from the Republic of South Africa. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg 76:211–213.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Desmezieres E, Maillard AP, Gaudin Y, Tordo N, Perrin P (2003) Differential stability and fusion activity of Lyssavirus glycoprotein trimers. Virus Res 91:181–187.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Digoutte JP (1975) Rapport Annuelo de l’Institut Pasteur de la Guyane Francaise, 31–32. Institute Pasteur French Guiana.Google Scholar
  32. East ML, Hofer H (1996) Wild dogs in the Serengeti. Science 271:275–276.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. East ML, Hofer H, Cox JH, Wulle U, Wiik H, Pitra C (2001) Regular exposure to rabies virus and lack of symptomatic disease in Serengeti spotted hyenas. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98:15026–15031.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Edmonds CR (1922) Diseases of animals in South Africa. Ballière Tindall & Cox, London, pp 195–212.Google Scholar
  35. Familusi JB, Moore DL (1972) Isolation of a rabies related virus from the CSF of a child with “aseptic meningitis”. Afr J Med Sci 3:93–96.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Familusi JB, Osunkoya BO, Moore DL, Kemp GE, Fabiyi A (1972) A fatal human infection with Mokola virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg 21:959–963.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Fekadu M (1972) Atypical rabies in dogs in Ethiopia. Ethiop Med J 10:79–86.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Fekadu M, Baer GM (1980) Recovery from clinical rabies of two dogs inoculated with a rabies virus strain from Ethiopia. Am J Vet Res 41:1632–1634.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Fekadu M, Shaddock JH, Baer GM (1982) Excretion of rabies virus in the saliva of dogs. J Infect Dis 145:715–719.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Fekadu M, Shaddock JH, Chandler FW, Baer GM (1983) Rabies virus in the tonsils of a carrier dog. Arch Virol 78:37–47.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Fekadu M, Shaddock JH, Sanderlin DW, Smith JS (1998) Efficacy of rabies vaccines against Duvenhage virus isolated from European house bats (Eptesicus serotinus), classic rabies and rabies-related viruses. Vaccine 6:533–539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Foggin CM (1983) Mokola virus infection in cats and a dog in Zimbabwe. Vet Rec 113:115.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Foggin CM (1988) Rabies and rabies-related viruses in Zimbabwe: Historical, virological and ecological aspects. PhD thesis, University of Zimbabwe.Google Scholar
  44. Foley HD, McGettigan JP, Siler CA, Dietzschold B, Schnell MJ (2000) A recombinant rabies virus expressing vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein fails to protect against rabies virus infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 97:14680–14685.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Fooks AR (2004) The challenge of new and emerging lyssaviruses. Exp Rev Vaccines 3:89–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Hanlon CA, DeMattos CA, DeMattos CC, Niezgoda M, Hooper DC, Koprowski H, Notkins A, and Rupprecht CE (2001) Experimental utility of rabies virus-neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies in post-exposure prophylaxis. Vaccine 19:3834–3842.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Hanlon CA, Kuzmin IV, Blanton JD, Weldon WC, Manangan JS, Rupprecht CE (2005) Efficacy of rabies biologics against new lyssaviruses from Eurasia. Virus Res 111:44–54.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Hersenberg L (1928) Two cases of hydrophobia. J Med Assoc South Afr 2:659–661.Google Scholar
  49. Hofmeyr M, Hofmeyr D, Nel L, Bingham J (2004) A second outbreak of rabies in African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) in Madikwe Game Reserve South Africa, demonstrating the efficacy of vaccination against natural rabies challenge. Anim Conser 7:193–198.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Hübschle OJB (1988) Rabies in the kudu antelope (Tragelaphus strepsiceros). Rev Infect Dis Suppl 4:S629–S633.Google Scholar
  51. Hutcheon D (1894) Report of the Colonial Veterinary Surgeon and Assistant Veterinary Surgeons for the Year (1893) Department of Agriculture Cape of Good Hope, pp 7–10.Google Scholar
  52. Illango J (1992) National report on rabies in Uganda. Proceedings of a Joint CVRI, WHO, FAO, OIE Seminaar on Rabies in Southern Africa Lusaka Zambia, 2–5 June (1992) World Health Organization, Geneva.Google Scholar
  53. Jallet C, Jacob Y, Bahloul C, Drings A, Desmezieres E, Tordo N, Perrin P (1999) Chimeric lyssavirus glycoproteins with increased immunological potential. J Virol 73:225–233.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Johnson N, McElhinney LM, Smith J, Lowings P, Fooks AR (2002) Phylogenetic comparison of the genus Lyssavirus using distal coding sequences of the glycoprotein and nucleoprotein genes. Arch Virol 147:2111–2123.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Johnson N, Letshwenyo M, Baipoledi EK, Thobokwe G, Fooks AR (2004) Molecular epidemiology of rabies in Botswana: a comparison between antibody typing and nucleotide sequence phylogeny. Vet Microbiol 101:31–38.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. Kariuki DP, Ngulo WK (1985) Epidemiology of animal rabies in Kenya (1900–1983). In: Kuwert E, Mérieux C, Koprowski H, Bögel K (eds) Rabies in the tropics. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg New York.Google Scholar
  57. Kemp GE, Causey OR, Moore DL, Odeola A, Biyi A (1972) Mokola virus. Further studies on IbAn 27377, a novel agent of zoonosis in Nigeria. Am J Trop Med Hyg 21:356–359.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. King A, Crick J (1988) Rabies-related viruses. In: Rabies (eds) Campbell JB, Charlton KM. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Boston, pp 177–200.Google Scholar
  59. King AA, Meredith CD, Thomson GR (1993) Canid and viverrid rabies viruses in South Africa. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 60:295–299.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. King AA, Meredith CD, Thomson GR (1994) The biology of southern African lyssavirus variants. In: Rupprecht CE, Dietzschold B, Koprowski H (eds) Lyssaviruses. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York.Google Scholar
  61. Kissi B, Tordo N, Bourhy H(1995) Genetic polymorphism in the rabies virus nucleoprotein gene. Virology 209:526–537.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Kuzmin IV, Hughes GJ, Botvinkin AD, Orciari LA, Rupprecht CE (2005) Phylogenetic relationships of Irkut and West Caucasian bat viruses within the lyssavirus genus and suggested quantitative criteria based on the N gene sequence for lyssaviruses genotype definition. Virus Res 111:28–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Le Gonidec G, Rickenbach A, Robin Y, Heme G (1978) Isolement d’une souche de virus Mokola au Cameroun. Ann Microbiol 129A:245–249.Google Scholar
  64. Maganu ET, Staugard F (1985) Epidemiology of rabies in Botswana. In: Kuwert E, Mérieux C, Koprowski H, Bögel K (eds) Rabies in the tropics. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York.Google Scholar
  65. Magembe SR (1985) Epidemiology of rabies in the United Republic of Tanzania. In: In: Kuwert E, Mérieux C, Koprowski H, Bögel K (eds) Rabies in the tropics. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York.Google Scholar
  66. Mansvelt PR (1962) Rabies in South Africa. Field control of the disease. J South Afr Vet Med Assoc 33:313–319.Google Scholar
  67. Mebatsion T, Cox JH, Frost JW (1992) Isolation and characterization of 115 street rabies virus isolates from Ethiopia by using monoclonal antibodies: Identification of 2 isolates as Mokola and Lagos Bat viruses. J Inter Virol 166:972–977.Google Scholar
  68. Meredith CD (1982) Wildlife rabies: past and present in South Africa. South Afr J Sci 78:411–415.Google Scholar
  69. Meredith CD, Standing E (1981) Lagos Bat virus in South Africa. Lancet 1:832–833.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. Meredith CD, Rossouw AP, Koch HP (1971) An unusual case of human rabies though to be of chiropteran origin. South Afr Med J 45:767–769.Google Scholar
  71. Msiska JGM (1988) The epidemiology and control of rabies and brucellosis in Malawi. Proceedings of the International Conference on Epidemiology Control and Prevention of Rabies and Brucellosis in Eastern and Southern African Countries, Gabarone, Botswana, 23–25 November 1988.Google Scholar
  72. Nadin-Davis SA, Bingham J (2004) Europe as a source of rabies for the rest of the world. In: King AA, Fooks AR, Aubert M, Wanderler AI (eds) Historical perspective of rabies in Europe and the Mediterranean basin. OIE Publications, pp 259–280.Google Scholar
  73. Nel L, Jacob J, Jaftha J, von Teichman B, Bingham J (2000) New cases of Mokola virus infection in South Africa: A genotypic comparison of southern african virus isolates. Virus Genes 20:103–106.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Nel LH, Niezgoda M, Hanlon CA, Morril PA, Yager PA, Rupprecht CE (2003) A comparison of DNA vaccines for the rabies-related virus Mokola. Vaccine 21:2598–2606.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Nel LH, Sabeta CT, Von Teichman B, Jaftha JB, Rupprecht CE, Bingham J (2005) Mongoose rabies in southern Africa: a re-evaluation based on molecular epidemiology. Virus Res 109:165–173.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Office Internationale des Epizooties: HANDISTATUS II Namibia/rabies multiannual animal disease status. ( Cited 26 February 2007.Google Scholar
  77. Paweska JT, Blumberg LH, Liebenberg C, Hewlett RH, Grobbelaar AA, Leman PA, Croft JE, Nel LH, Nutt L, Swanepoel R. Fatal human infection with rabies-related Duvenhage virus, South Africa. Emerg Infect Dis. 2006; 12:1965–1967.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. Randall DA, Williams SD, Kuzmin IV, Rupprecht CE, Tallents LA, Tefera Z, Argaw K, Shiferaw F, Knobel DL, Sillero-Zubiri C, Laurenson MK (2004) Rabies in endangered Ethiopian wolves. Emerg Infect Dis 10:214–217.Google Scholar
  79. Remlinger P, Curasson M (1924) Identité de l’oulou fato (maladie du chien fou de l’ouest africain) et de la rage. Bull Acad Natl Méd 92:1112–1117.Google Scholar
  80. Rollinson DHL (1956) Problems of rabies control in Africa. Bul Epiz Dis Afr 4:7–16.Google Scholar
  81. Rupprecht CE, Blass L, Smith K, Orciari LA, Niezgoda M, Whitfield SG, Gibbons RV, Guerra M, and Hanlon CA (2001) Human infection due to recombinant vaccinia-rabies glycoprotein virus. N Engl J Med 345:582–586.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. Rupprecht CE, Hanlon CA, Hemachudha T (2002) Rabies re-examined. Lancet Infect Dis 2:327–343.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Sabeta CT, Bingham J, Nel LH (2003) Molecular epidemiology of canid rabies in Zimbabwe and South Africa. Virus Res 91:203–211.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. Saluzzo JF, Rollin PE, Daugard C, Digiutte JP, Georges AJ, and Sureau P (1984) Premier isolement du virus Mokola a partir d’un rongeur (Lophuromys sikapusi). Ann Inst Pasteur Virol 135E:57–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Schneider LG (1985) Oral immunization of wildlife against rabies. Ann Inst Pasteur Virol 136:469–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Schneider LG, Barnard BJH, Schneider HP (1985) Application of monoclonal antibodies for epidemiological investigations and oral vaccination studies. I African viruses In: Kuwert E, Mérieux C, Koprowski H, Bögel K (eds) Rabies in the tropics. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, pp 47–59.Google Scholar
  87. Schnell MJ, Tan GS, Dietzschold B (2005) The application of reverse genetics technology in the study of rabies virus (RV) pathogenesis and for the development of novel RV vaccines. J Neuro Virol 11:76–81.Google Scholar
  88. Shone DK (1962) Rabies in Southern Rhodesia 1900–(1961) J South Afr Vet Med Assoc 33:567–580.Google Scholar
  89. Shope R (1975) Rabies virus antigenic relationships. In: Baer GM (ed) The natural history of rabies, 1st edn. Academic, New York, pp 141–152.Google Scholar
  90. Shope RE, Murphy FA, Harrison AK, Causey OR, Kemp GE, Simpson DIH, Moore DL (1970) Two African viruses serologically and morphologically related to rabies virus. J Virol 6:690–692.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. Sillero-Zubiri C, King AA, Macdonald DW (1996) Rabies and mortality in Ethiopian wolves (Canis simensis). J Wild Dis 32:80–86.Google Scholar
  92. Sinclair JM (1914) Report of the Director of Agriculture for the Year 1913, Southern Rhodesia.Google Scholar
  93. Siongok TKA, Karama M (1985) Epidemiology of human rabies in Kenya. In: Kuwert E, Mérieux C, Koprowski H, Bögel K (eds) Rabies in the tropics. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York.Google Scholar
  94. Snyman PS (1940) The study and control of vectors of rabies in South Africa. Onderstepoort J Vet Sci Anim Husband 66:296–307.Google Scholar
  95. Sureau P, Tignor GH, Smith AL (1980) Antigenic characterization of the Bangui strain (ANCB-672D) of Lagos bat virus. Ann Virol 131:25–32.Google Scholar
  96. Swart H (1989) Hondsdolheid in Suid Afrika. South Afr Vet Med 2:163–166.Google Scholar
  97. Swanepoel R, Barnard BJH, Meredith CD, Bishop GC, Bruchner GK, Foggin CM, Hubschle OJB (1993) Rabies in southern Africa. Onderstepoort J Vet Res 60:323–346.Google Scholar
  98. Swanepoel R (2005) Rabies. In: Coetzer JAW, Tustin RC (eds) Infectious diseases of livestock with special reference to southern Africa. Oxford University Press Southern Africa, Cape Town.Google Scholar
  99. Thierry G (1959) Particularitiés de la rage dans l’ouest africaine. Bul Epiz Dis Afr 7:265.Google Scholar
  100. Tordo N, Bourhy H, Sather S, Ollo R (1993) Structure and expression in baculovirus of the Mokola virus glycoprotein: An efficient recombinant vaccine. Virology 194:59–69.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. Tuffereau C, LeBlois H, Bënëjean J, Coulon P, Lafay F, Flamand A (1989) Arginine or lysine in position 333 of ERA, CVS glycoprotein is necessary for rabies virulence in adult mice. Virology 172:206–212.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. Valadao F (1968) The most important aspects of the rabies problem in Mozambique. Veterin Moçambique 2:13–20.Google Scholar
  103. Van der Merwe M (1982) Bats as vectors of rabies. South Afr J Sci 78:421–422.Google Scholar
  104. Von Maltitz L (1950) Rabies in the northern districts of South West Africa. J South Afr Vet Med Assoc 21:4–12.Google Scholar
  105. Von Teichman BF, Thomson GR, Meredith CD, Nel LH (1995) Molecular epidemiology of rabies virus in South Africa: evidence for two distinct virus groups. J Gen Virol 76:73–82.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Von Teichman B, de Koker WC, Bosch SJE, Meredith CD, Bingham J (1998) Mokola virus infection: description of recent South African cases and a review of virus epidemiology. J South Afr Vet Med Assoc 69:169–171.Google Scholar
  107. Wiktor TJ (1985) Is a special vaccine required against rabies-related viruses and variants of rabies? In: Vodopija I (ed) Improvements in rabies post-exposure treatment. Zagreb Institute of Public Health, Zagreb, pp 9–14.Google Scholar
  108. Zyambo GCN, Sinyangwe PG, Bussein NA (1985) Rabies in Zambia. In: Kuwert E, Mérieux C, Koprowski H, Bögel K (eds) Rabies in the tropics. Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • L. H. Nel
    • 1
  • C. E. Rupprecht
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural SciencesUniversity of PretoriaPretoriaAustralia
  2. 2.Division of Viral and Rickettsial Diseases, Poxvirus and Rabies Branch, Rabies ProgramCenters for Disease Control and PreventionAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations