Advertisement

Henipaviruses: Emerging Paramyxoviruses Associated with Fruit Bats

  • H. E. Field
  • John S. Mackenzie
  • P. Daszak
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 315)

Two related, novel, zoonotic paramyxoviruses have been described recently. Hendra virus was first reported in horses and thence humans in Australia in 1994; Nipah virus was first reported in pigs and thence humans in Malaysia in 1998. Human cases of Nipah virus infection, apparently unassociated with infection in livestock, have been reported in Bangladesh since 2001. Species of fruit bats (genus Pteropus ) have been identified as natural hosts of both agents. Anthropogenic changes (habitat loss, hunting) that have impacted the population dynamics of Pteropus species across much of their range are hypothesised to have facilitated emergence. Current strategies for the management of henipaviruses are directed at minimising contact with the natural hosts, monitoring identified intermediate hosts, improving biosecurity on farms, and better disease recognition and diagnosis. Investigation of the emergence and ecology of henipaviruses warrants a broad, cross-disciplinary ecosystem health approach that recognises the critical linkages between human activity, ecological change, and livestock and human health.

Keywords

Emerg Infect Nipah Virus Hendra Virus Nipah Virus Infection Nipah Virus Encephalitis 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abu Bakar S, Chang LY, Ali AR, Sharifah SH, Yusoff K, Zamrod Z (2004) Isolation and Molecular Identification of Nipah Virus from Pigs. Emerg Infect Dis 10:2228–2230.Google Scholar
  2. Allworth A, O’Sullivan J, Selvey L, Sheridan J (1995) Equine morbillivirus in Queensland. Comm Disease Intell 19:575.Google Scholar
  3. Anonymous (2003) Outbreaks of encephalitis due to Nipah/Hendra-like viruses, western Bangladesh. Health Sci Bull 1:1–6.Google Scholar
  4. Anonymous (2004a) Nipah encephalitis outbreak over wide area of western Bangladesh (2004) Health Sci Bull 2:7–11.Google Scholar
  5. Anonymous (2004b) Person-to-person transmission of Nipah virus during outbreak in Faridpur District (2004) Health Sci Bull 2:5–9.Google Scholar
  6. Anonymous (2005a) Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Ecosystems and Human Well-Being report (May 2005). http://www.millenniumassessment.org/en/index.aspx. Accessed 19 July 2005.
  7. Anonymous (2005b) Nipah virus outbreak from date palm juice. Health Sci Bull 3:1–5.Google Scholar
  8. Baldock FC, Douglas IC, Halpin K, Field H, Young PL, Black PF (1996) Epidemiological investigations into the 1994 equine morbillivirus outbreaks in Queensland Australia. Sing Vet J 20:57–61.Google Scholar
  9. Breed AC, Field HE, Plowright RK (2005) Volant viruses: a concern to bats, humans and other animals. Microbiol Aust 26:59–62.Google Scholar
  10. Bunning M, Jamaluddin A, Cheang H et al. (2000) Epidemiological trace-back studies of the Nipah virus outbreak in pig farms in the Ipoh district of Malaysia, 1997–1999. In: Cargill C, McOrist S (eds) Proceedings of the 16th International Pig Veterinary Society Congress. Ocean Grove, p 551.Google Scholar
  11. Centers for Disease Control (1999) Outbreak of Hendra-like virus–Malaysia and Singapore. Morb Mort Wkly Rep 48:265–269.Google Scholar
  12. Chan YP, Chua KB, Koh CL, Lim ME, Lam SK (2001) Complete nucleotide sequences of Nipah virus isolates from Malaysia. J Gen Virol 82:2151–2155.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Childs JE (2004) Zoonotic viruses of wildlife: hither from yon. Arch Virol Suppl 18:1–11.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Chua KB (2003) Nipah virus outbreak in Malaysia. J Clin Virol 26:265–275.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Chua KB, Goh KJ, Wong KT, Kamarulzaman A, Tan PS, Ksiazek TG, Zaki SR, Paul G, Lam SK, Tan CT (1999) Fatal encephalitis due to Nipah virus among pig-farmers in Malaysia. Lancet 354:1256–1259.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chua KB, Bellini WJ, Rota PA, Harcourt BH, Tamin A, Lam SK, Ksiazek TG, Rollin PE, Zaki SR, Shieh W, Goldsmith CS, Gubler DJ, Roehrig JT, Eaton B, Gould AR, Olson J, Field H, Daniels P, Ling AE, Peters CJ, Anderson LJ, Mahy BW (2000) Nipah virus: A recently emergent deadly paramyxovirus. Science 288:1432–1435.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Chua KB, Lam SK, Goh KJ, Hooi PS, Ksiazek TG, Kamarulzaman A, Olson J, Tan CT (2001a) The presence of Nipah virus in respiratory secretions and urine of patients during an outbreak of Nipah virus encephalitis in Malaysia. J Infect 42:40–43.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. Chua KB, Wang LF, Lam SK, Crameri G, Yu M, Wise T, Boyle D, Hyatt AD, Eaton BT (2001b) Tioman virus, a novel paramyxovirus isolated from fruit bats in Malaysia. Virology 283:215–219.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Chua KB, Koh CL, Hooi PS, Wee KF, Khong JH, Chua BH, Chan YP, Lim ME, Lam SK (2002) Isolation of Nipah virus from Malaysian Island flying foxes. Microbes Infect 4:145–151.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Daniels PW (2000) The Nipah virus outbreak in Malaysia: Overview of the outbreak investigation and the issues that remain. In: Cargill C, McOrist S (eds) Proceedings of the 16th International Pig Veterinary Society Congress. Ocean Grove, p 551.Google Scholar
  21. Daszak P (2005) The Henipavirus Ecology Collaborative Research Group (HERG) project overview. http://www.henipavirus.net/project_overview/project_proposal.htm. Accessed 19 July 2005.
  22. Daszak P, Cunningham AA, Hyatt AD (2000) Emerging Infectious Diseases of Wildlife- threats to biodiversity and human health. Science 287:443–448.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Daszak P, Cunningham AA, Hyatt AD (2001) Anthropogenic environmental change and the emergence of infectious diseases in wildlife. Acta Tropica 78:103–116.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Daszak P, Plowright R, Epstein JH, Pulliam J, Abdul Rahman S, Field HE, Jamaluddin A, Sharifah SH, Smith CS, Olival KJ, Luby S, Halpin K, Hyatt AD, Cunningham AA, the Henipavirus Ecology Research Group (HERG) (2006) The emergence of Nipah and Hendra virus: pathogen dynamics across a wildlife-livestock-human continuum. In: Collinge SK, Ray C (eds) Disease ecology: community structure and pathogen dynamics. Oxford University Press, Oxford pp 186–201.Google Scholar
  25. Douglas IC, Baldock FC, Black P (1997) Outbreak investigation of an emerging disease (equine morbillivirus). Epidemiol Santé Animale: Procedings of 8th ISVEE conference, Paris, pp 04.08.1–04.08.08.3.Google Scholar
  26. Field HE (2005) The ecology of Hendra virus and Australian bat lyssavirus. PhD thesis, The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia. http://espace.library.uq.edu.au/view.php?pid=UQ:13859.
  27. Field HE, Barratt PC, Hughes RJ, Shield J, Sullivan ND (2000) A fatal case of Hendra virus infection in a horse in north Queensland: clinical and epidemiological features. Aust Vet J 78:279–280.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. Field HE, Breed AC, Shield J, Hedlefs RM, Pittard K, Pott B, Summers PM (2007) Epidemiological perspectives on Hendra virus infection in horses and flying foxes. Aust Vet J (in press).Google Scholar
  29. Field H, Young P, Yob JM, Mills J, Hall L, Mackenzie J (2001) The natural history of Hendra and Nipah viruses. Microbes Infect 3:315–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Field H, Mackenzie J, Daszak P (2004) Novel viral encephalitides associated with bats (Chiroptera)–host management strategies. Arch Virol Suppl 18:113–121.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Goh KJ, Tan TC, Chew NK, Tan PSK, Karmarulzaman A, Sarji SA, Wong KT, Abdullah BJJ, Chua KB, Lam SK (2000) Clinical features of Nipah virus encephalitis among pig farmers in Malaysia. N Engl J Med 342:1229–1235.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Gould AR (1996) Comparison of the deduced matrix and fusion protein sequences of equine morbillivirus with cognate genes of the Paramyxoviridae. Virus Res 43:17–31.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Hall LS, Richards G (2000) Flying foxes: Fruit and Blossom Bats of Australia. University of New South Wales Press, Sydney.Google Scholar
  34. Halpin K, Young PL, Field HE, Mackenzie JS (2000) Isolation of Hendra virus from pteropid bats: a natural reservoir of Hendra virus. J Gen Virol 81:1927–1932.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Harcourt BH, Lowe L, Tamin A, Lui X, Bankamp B, Bowden N, Rollin PE, Corner JA, Ksaizek TG, Hossain MJ, Gurley ES, Breiman RF, Bellini WJ, Rota PA (2005) Genetic characterisation of Nipah virus Bangladesh (2004) Emerg Infect Dis 11:1594–1597.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Henderson GW, Laird C, Dermott E, Rima BK (1995) Characterization of Mapeura virus: structure, proteins and nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding nucleocapsid protein. J Gen Virol 76:2509–2518.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Hooper PT, Gould AR, Russell GM, Kattenbelt JA, Mitchell G (1996) The retrospective diagnosis of a second outbreak of equine morbillivirus infection. Aust Vet J 74:244–245.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. Hsu VP, Hossain MJ, Parashar UD, Ali MM, Ksiazek TG, Kuzmin I, Niezgoda M, Rupprecht C, Bresee J, Breiman RF (2004) Nipah Virus Encephalitis Reemergence Bangladesh. Emerg Infect Dis 10:2082–2087.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Hyatt AD, Selleck PW (1996) Ultrastructure of equine morbillivirus. Virus Res 43:1–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Krause R (1992) The origins of plagues: old and new. Science 257:1073–1078.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Lederberg J, Shope RE, Oaks SC (1992) Emerging infections: microbial threats to health in the United Sates. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  42. Liu J, Lim SL, Ruan Y, Ling AE, Ng LPF, Drosten C, Liu ET, Stanton LW, Hibberd ML (2005) SARS transmission pattern in Singapore reassessed by viral sequence variation analysis. PLoS Med 2:162–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mackenzie JS, Chua KB, Daniels PW, Eaton BT, Field HE, Hall RA, Halpin K, Johansen CA, Kirkland PD, Lam SK, McMinn P, Nisbet DJ, Paru R, Pyke AT, Ritchie SA, Siba P, Smith DW, Smith GA, van den Hurk AF, Williams DT (2001) Emerging viral diseases of southeast Asia and the western Pacific. Emerg Infect Dis 7:497–504.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Mackenzie JS, Field HE, Guyatt KJ (2003) Managing emerging diseases borne by fruit bats (flying foxes) with particular reference to Henipaviruses and Australian bat lyssavirus. J Appl MicroBiol Suppl 94:59S–69S.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Medway L (1978) The wild mammals of Malaya (Peninsular Malaysia) and Singapore. Oxford University Press, Kuala Lumpur.Google Scholar
  46. Mickleburg SP, Hutson AM, Racey PA (1992) Old World Fruit Bats: an action plan for their conservation. Internation Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources, Gland, Switzerland.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Middleton DJ, Westbury HA, Morrissy CJ, Van der Heide BM, Russell GM, Braun MA, Hyatt AD (2002) Experimental Nipah virus infection in pigs and cats. J Comp Pathol 126:124–136.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Morse SS (1995) Factors in the emergence of infectious diseases. Emerg Infect Dis 1:7–15.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. Murray K, Rogers R, Selvey L, Selleck P, Hyatt A, Gould A, Gleeson L, Hooper P, Westbury H (1995a) A novel morbillivirus pneumonia of horses and its transmission to humans. Emerg Infect Dis 1:31–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Murray K, Selleck P, Hooper P, Hyatt A, Gould A, Gleeson L, Westbury H, Hiley L, Selvey L, Rodwell B, Ketterer P (1995b) A morbillivirus that caused fatal disease in horses and humans. Science 268:94–97.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Nor MN, Gan CH, Ong BL (2000) Nipah virus infection of pigs in peninsular Malaysia. Rev Sci Off Int Epiz 19:160–165.Google Scholar
  52. Nowak RM (1994) Walker’s Bats of the World. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore.Google Scholar
  53. Olson JG, Rupprecht C, Rollin PE, An US, Niezgoda M, Clemins T, Walston J, Ksiazek TG (2002) Antibodies to Nipah-like virus in bats (Pteropus lylei), Cambodia. Emerg Infect Dis 8:987–988.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. Osterhaus AD, Groen J, Spijkers HE, Broeders HW, UyteHaag FG, de Vries P, Teppema JS, Visser IK, van de Bildt MW, Vedder EJ (1990) Mass mortality in seals caused by a newly discovered morbillivirus. Vet Microbiol 23:343–350.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. Ostfeld RS, Keesing F (2000) Biodiversity and disease risk: The case of Lyme disease. Conserv Biol 14:722–728.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Parashar UD, Sunn LM, Ong F, Mounts AW, Arif MT, Ksiazek TG, Kamaluddin MA, Mustafa AN, Kaur H, Ding LM, Othman G, Radzi HM, Kitsutani PT, Stockton PC, Arokiasamy J, Gary HE Jr, Anderson LJ (2000) Case-control study of risk factors for human infection with a novel zoonotic paramyxovirus Nipah virus, during a 1998–1999 outbreak of severe encephalitis in Malaysia. J Infect Dis 181:1755–1759.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. Parry-Jones KA, Augee ML (2001) Factors affecting the occupation of a colony site in Sydney New South Wales by the Grey-headed Flying-fox Pteropus poliocephalus (Pteropodidae). Aust Ecol 26:47–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Pavri KM, Singh KR, Hollinger FB (1971) Isolation of a new parainfluenza virus from a frugivorous bat Rousettus leschenaulti, collected at Poona India. Am J Trop Med Hyg 20:125–130.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. Philbey AW, Kirkland PD, Ross AD, Davis RJ, Gleeson AB, Love RJ, Daniels PW, Gould AR, Hyatt AD (1998) An apparently new virus (family Paramyxoviridae) infectious for pigs, humans and fruit bats. Emerg Infect Dis 4:269–271.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. Plowright RK, Foley P, Field HE, Foley J (2005) Disease ecology of Hendra virus: epidemiological modelling to test theories for emergence. Abstracts Wildlife Disease Association International Conference (Wildlife Health in a shrinking world: ecology, management and conservation), June 26–July 1, 2005, Cairns, Australia.Google Scholar
  61. Renshaw RW, Glaser AL, van Campen H, Weiland F, Dubovi EJ (2000) Identification and phylogenetic comparison of Salem virus, a novel paramyxovirus of horses. Virology 270:417–429.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. Reynes JM, Counor D, Ong S, Faure C, Seng V, Molia S, Walston J, Georges-Courbot MC, Deubel V, Sarthou JL (2005) Nipah virus in Lyle’s flying foxes Cambodia. Emerg Infect Dis 11:1042–1047.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Rogers RJ, Douglas IC, Baldock FC, Glanville RJ, Seppanen KT, Gleeson LJ, Selleck PN, Dunn KJ (1996) Investigation of a second focus of equine morbillivirus infection in coastal Queensland. Aust Vet J 74:243–244.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. Selvey LA, Wells RM, McCormack JG, Ansford AJ, Murray K, Rogers RJ, Lavercombe PS, Selleck P, Sheridan JW (1995) Infection of humans and horses by a newly described morbillivirus. Med J Aust 162:642–645.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Sendow I, Field HE, Curran J, Darminto Morrissey C, Buick T, Daniels P (2006) Henipavirus inPteropus vampyrus bats Indonesia. Emerg Infect Dis 12:711–712.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. Smolinski M, Hamburg M, Lederberg J (2003) Microbial threats to health: Emergence Detection and Response. The National Academies Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  67. Song HD, Tu CC, Zhang GW, Wang SY, Zheng K, Lei LC, Chen QX, Gao YW, Zhou HQ, Xiang H, Zheng HJ, Chern SW, Cheng F, Pan CM, Xuan H, Chen SJ, Luo HM, Zhou DH, Liu YF, He JF, Qin PZ, Li LH, Ren YQ, Liang WJ, Yu YD, Anderson L, Wang M, Xu RH, Wu XW, Zheng HY, Chen JD, Liang G, Gao Y, Liao M, Fang L, Jiang LY, Li H, Chen F, Di B, He LJ, Lin JY, Tong S, Kong X, Du L, Hao P, Tang H, Bernini A, Yu XJ, Spiga O, Guo ZM, Pan HY, He WZ, Manuguerra JC, Fontanet A, Danchin A, Niccolai N, Li YX, Wu CI, Zhao GP (2005) Cross-host evolution of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus in palm civet and human. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 102:2430–2435.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. Taubenberger JK, Tsai M, Krafft AE, Lichy JH, Reid AH, Schulman FY, Lipscomb TP (1996) Two morbilliviruses implicated in bottlenose dolphin epizootics. Emerg Infect Dis 2:213–216.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. Taylor LH, Latham SM, Woolhouse ME (2001) Risk factors for human disease emergence. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 356:983–989.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Tidona CA, Kurz HW, Gelderblom HR, Darai G (1999) Isolation and molecular characterisation of a novel cytopathogenic paramyxovirus from tree shrews. Virology 258:425–434.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. Wang LF, Yu M, Hansson E, Pritchard LI, Shiell B, Michalski WP, Eaton BT (2000) The exceptionally large genome of Hendra virus: support for creation of a new genus within the family Paramyxoviridae. J Virol 74:9972–9979.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. Ward MP, Black PF, Childs AJ, Baldock RC, Webster WR, Rodwell BJ, Brouwer SL (1996) Negative findings from serological studies of equine morbillivirus in the Queensland horse population. Aust Vet J 74:241–243.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. Westbury HA, Hooper PT, Brouwer SL, Selleck PW (1996) Susceptibility of cats to equine morbillivirus. Aust Vet J 74:132–134.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. Williamson MM, Hooper PT, Selleck PW, Gleeson LJ, Daniels PW, Westbury HA, Murray PK (1998) Transmission studies of Hendra virus (equine morbillivirus) in fruit bats, horses and cats. Aust Vet J 76:813–818.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. Yob JM, Field HE, Rashdi AM, Morrissy C, van der Heide B, Rota P, bin Adzhar A, White J, Daniels P, Jamaluddin A, Ksiazek T (2001) Nipah virus infection in bats (order Chiroptera) in peninsular Malaysia. Emerg Infect Dis 7:439–441.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. Young PL, Halpin K, Selleck PW, Field H, Gravel JL, Kelly MA, Mackenzie JS (1996) Serologic evidence for the presence in Pteropus bats of a paramyxovirus related to equine morbillivirus. Emerg Infect Dis 2:239–240.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. Young PL, Halpin K, Field HE, Mackenzie JS (1997) Finding the wildlife reservoir of equine morbillivirus. In: Asche V (ed) Recent advances in microbiology. Australian Society of Microbiology Inc., Melbourne.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. E. Field
    • 1
  • John S. Mackenzie
    • 2
  • P. Daszak
    • 3
  1. 1.BrisbaneAustralia
  2. 2.Centre for Emerging Infectious DiseasesAustralian Biosecurity Cooperative Research Centre, Curtin University of TechnologyPerthAustralia
  3. 3.Consortium for Conservation MedicineNew YorkUSA

Personalised recommendations