Simulating Mechanism of Brain Injury During Closed Head Impact
In this paper, we study the mechanics of the brain during closed head impact via numerical simulation. We propose a mathematical model of the human head, which consists of three layers: the rigid skull, the cerebrospinal fluid and the solid brain. The fluid behavior is governed by the Navier-Stokes equations, and the fluid and solid interact together according to the laws of mechanics. Numerical simulations are then performed on this model to simulate accident scenarios. Several theories have been proposed to explain whether the ensuing brain injury is dominantly located at the site of impact (coup injury) or at the site opposite to it (contrecoup injury). In particular, we investigate the positive pressure theory, the negative pressure theory, and the cerebrospinal fluid theory. The results of our numerical simulations together with pathological findings show that no one theory can explain the mechanics of the brain during the different types of accidents. We therefore highlight the accident scenarios under which each theory presents a consistent explanation of brain mechanics.
KeywordsHuman Head Brain Size Head Model Head Impact Accident Scenario
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 1.Lindenberg, R., Freytag, E.: The mechanism of cerebral contusions. AMA Archives of Pathology 69, 440–469 (1960)Google Scholar
- 2.Denny-Brown, D., Russell, W.R.: Experimental cerebral concussion. Brain 64, 95–164 (1941)Google Scholar
- 3.Denny-Brown, D.: Cerebral concussion. Neurological Unit, Boston City Hospital, and the Department of Neurology, Harvard Medical SchoolGoogle Scholar
- 6.Lindenberg, R.: Trauma of meninges and brain. In: Minckler, J. (ed.) Pathology of the nervous system. McGraw-Hill, New York (1971)Google Scholar
- 8.Gross, A.: A new theory on the dynamics of brain concussion and brain injury. Journal of Neurosurgery 15, 548 (1958)Google Scholar
- 10.for Neuro Skills, C, http://www.neuroskills.com/edu/ceuoverview5.shtml
- 11.Brands, D.: Predicting brain mechanics during closed head impact. PhD thesis, Eidhoven University of Technology (2002)Google Scholar
- 12.Belingardi, G., Chiandussi, G., Gaviglio, I.: Development and validation of a new finite element model of human head. Technical report, Politecnio di Torino, Dipartimento di Meccanica, Italy (2005)Google Scholar
- 14.Chu, Y., Bottlang, M.: Finite element analysis of traumatic brain injury. In: Legacy Clinical Research and Technology Center, Portland, OR,Google Scholar
- 18.Szczyrba, I., Burtscher, M.: On the role of ventricles in diffuse axonal injuries. In: Summer Bioengineering Conference (2003)Google Scholar
- 24.Guyton, A., Hall, J.: Textbook of Medical Physiology, 11th edn. Elsevier Sauders, Amsterdam (2006)Google Scholar