Advertisement

Coral Bleaching in Space and Time

Chapter
Part of the Ecological Studies book series (ECOLSTUD, volume 205)

Abstract

Large-scale coral bleaching was recorded as early as 1931, but severe bleaching on a regional or global scale was not documented until 1983. We use records from a global database of bleaching records to show that severe bleaching events occurred at a global level on four recent occasions and demonstrate that these events occurred in close temporal proximity to a strong negative deviation in the Southern Oscillation Index. While there was no clear increase in the frequency or intensity of major global bleaching events, the number of bleaching records clearly increased during the past three decades. However, increased vigilance and reporting of mild bleaching by an ever-increasing number of researchers and conservation-minded divers has confounded efforts to definitively separate changes in bleaching frequency from changes in reporting.

Keywords

Coral Reef Great Barrier Reef Southern Oscillation Index Coral Bleaching Bleaching Event 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Berkelmans R, Oliver J (1999) Large scale bleaching of corals on the Great Barrier Reef. Coral Reefs 18:55–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Berkelmans R, Deɺth G, Kininmonth S, Skirving W (2004) A comparison of the 1998 and 2002 coral bleaching events on the Great Barrier Reef: spatial correlation, patterns, and predictions. Coral Reefs 23:74–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brown BE (1987) Worldwide death of corals — natural cyclical events or man-made pollution? Mar Pollut Bull 18:9–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Coffroth MA, Lasker HA, Oliver JK (1990) Coral mortality outside of the eastern Pacific during 1982–1983: relationship to El Niño. In: Glynn PW (ed) Global ecological consequences of the 1982–83 El Niño—Southern Oscillation. (Elsevier oceanography series) Elsevier, New York, pp 141–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Donner SD, Skirving WJ, Little CM, Oppenheimer M, Hoegh-Guldberg O (2005) Global assessment of coral bleaching and required rates of adaptation under climate change. Global Change Biol 11:2251–2265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Donner SD, Knutson TR, Oppenheimer M (2007) Model-based assessment of the role of human-induced climate change in the 2005 Caribbean coral bleaching event. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:5483–5488PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fabricius KE (2006) Effects of irradiance, flow, and colony pigmentation on the temperature microenvironment around corals: implications for coral bleaching? Limnol Ocean 51:30–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Glynn PW (1983) Extensive “bleaching” and death of reef corals on the Pacific coast of Panama. Environ Conserv 10:149–154Google Scholar
  9. Glynn PW (1984) Widespread coral mortality and the 1982–83 El Niño warming event. Environ Conserv 11:133–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Glynn PW (1990) Coral mortality and disturbances to coral reefs in the tropical eastern Pacific. In: Glynn PW (ed) Global ecological consequences of the 1982–83 El Niño—Southern Oscillation. (Elsevier oceanography series) Elsevier, New York, pp 55–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Glynn PW (1991) Coral reef bleaching in the 1980s and possible connections with global warming. Trends Ecol Evol 6:175–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Glynn PW (1993) Coral reef bleaching: ecological perspectives. Coral Reefs 12:1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Glynn PW (1996) Coral reef bleaching: facts, hypotheses and implications. Global Change Biol 2:495–509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Glynn PW (2000) El Niño—Southern Oscillation mass mortalities of reef corals: a model of high temperature marine extinctions. In: Insalaco E, Skelton PW, Palmer TJ (eds) Carbonate platform systems: components and interactions. Geol Soc Lond Spec Pub 178:117–133Google Scholar
  15. Glynn PW (2002) Effects of the 1997–98 El Niño—Southern Oscillation on eastern Pacific corals and coral reefs: an overview. In: Moosa MK, Soemodihardjo S, Soegiarto A, Romimohtarto K, Nontji A, Soekarno, Suharsono (eds) Proc Int Coral Reef Symp 9-2:1169–1174Google Scholar
  16. Goreau TF (1964) Mass expulsion of zooxanthellae from Jamaican coral reef communities after hurricane Flora. Science 145:383–386PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Goreau TJ, Hayes RL (1994) Coral bleaching and ocean hot spots. Ambio 23:176–180Google Scholar
  18. Hoegh-Guldberg O (1999) Climate change, coral bleaching and the future of the world's coral reefs. Mar Freshwater Res 50:839–866CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hughes TP, Baird AH, Bellwood DR, Card M, Connolly SR, Folke, Grosberg R, Hoegh-Guldberg O, Jackson JBC, Kleypas J, Lough JM, Marshall P, Nyström M, Palumbi SR, Pandolfi JM, Rosen B, Roughgarden J (2003) Climate change, human impacts, and the resilience of coral reefs. Science 301:929–933PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Huppert A, Stone L (1998) Chaos in the Pacific's coral bleaching cycle. Am Nat 152:447–458PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Mantua NJ, Hare SR, Zhang Y, Wallace JM, Francis RC (1997) A Pacific interdecadal climate oscillation with impacts on salmon production. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 78:1069–1079CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Manzello DP, Berkelmans R, Hendee JC (2007) Coral bleaching indices and thresholds for the Florida Reef Tract, Bahamas, and St Croix, US Virgin Islands. Mar Pollut Bull 54:1923–1931PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Marshall P, Shuttenberg H (2006) A reef managers guide to coral bleaching. Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, TownsvilleGoogle Scholar
  24. Mayer AG (1914) The effects of temperature on tropical marine animals. Carnegie Inst Washington Pap Tort Lab 6:1–24Google Scholar
  25. Michalek-Wagner K, Willis BL (2001) Impacts of bleaching on the soft coralLobophytum com-pactum. II. Fecundity, fertilization and offspring viability. Coral Reefs 19:231–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Oliver J (1985) Recurrent seasonal bleaching and mortality of corals on the Great Barrier Reef. In: Gabrie C, Salvat B (eds) Proc Int Coral Reef Congr 5-4:201–212Google Scholar
  27. Oliver J, Marshall P, Setiasih N, Hansen, L (2004) A global protocol for assessment and monitoring of coral bleaching. WorldFish Center, Penang/WWF Indonesia, JakartaGoogle Scholar
  28. Salm RV, Coles SL (eds) (2001) Coral bleaching and marine protected areas. (Proceedings of the workshop on mitigating coral bleaching impact through MPA design, Bishop Museum, Honolulu, Hawaii, 29-31 May 2001. Asia Pacific coastal marine program report 0102) The Nature Conservancy, HonoluluGoogle Scholar
  29. Shinn EA (1961) Coral growth-rate: an environmental indicator. J Paleontol 40:233–240Google Scholar
  30. Skirving W, Heron M, Heron S (2006) The hydrodynamics of a bleaching event: implications for management and monitoring. In: Phinney JT, Hoegh-Guldberg O, Kleypas J, Skirving W, Strong A (eds) Coral reefs and climate change science and management. (Coastal and estua-rine studies 61) American Geophysical Union, Washington, D.C., pp 145–161Google Scholar
  31. Trenberth, KE, Hurrell JW (1994) Decadal atmosphere—ocean variations in the Pacific. Clim Dyn 9: 303–319CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wellington GM, Glynn PW (2007) Responses of coral reefs to El Niño—Southern Oscillation sea-warming events. In: Aronson RB (ed) Geological approaches to coral reef ecology. Springer, New York, pp 342–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Whelan KR, Miller TJ, Sanchez O, Patterson M (2007) Impact of the 2005 coral bleaching event onPorites porites and Colpophyllia natans at Tektite reef, US Virgin Islands. Coral Reefs 26:689–693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wilkinson CR (1998) Status of coral reefs of the world: 1998. Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network, Australian Institute of Marine Science, TownsvilleGoogle Scholar
  35. Wilkinson CR (2000) Status of coral reefs of the world: 2000. Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network, Australian Institute of Marine Science, TownsvilleGoogle Scholar
  36. Wilkinson CR (2002) Status of coral reefs of the world: 2002. Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network, Australian Institute of Marine Science, TownsvilleGoogle Scholar
  37. Wilkinson C, Souter D (2008) Status of Caribbean coral reefs after bleaching and hurricanes in 2005. Global Coral Reef Monitoring Network and Reef and Rainforest Research Centre, TownsvilleGoogle Scholar
  38. Williams EH, Bunkley-Williams L (1990) The worldwide coral bleaching cycle and related sources of coral mortality. Atoll Res Bull 335:1–71Google Scholar
  39. Wooldridge S, Done T (2004) Learning to predict large-scale coral bleaching from past events: a Bayesian approach using remotely sensed data, in situ data, and environmental proxies. Coral Reefs 23:96–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wooldridge S, Brodie J, Furnas M (2006) Exposure of inner-shelf reefs to nutrient enriched runoff entering the Great Barrier Reef lagoon: post-European changes and the design of water quality targets. Mar Pollut Bull 52:1467–1479PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Yonge CM, Nicholls AG (1931) The structure, distribution and physiology of the zooxanthellae. (Studies on the physiology of corals IV) Sci Rep Great Barrier Reef Exped 1928–29 1:135–176Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The WorldFish CenterPenangMalaysia
  2. 2.Australian Institute of Marine Science, PMB 3Townsville MCAustralia
  3. 3.NOAA Coral Reef WatchSilver SpringUSA

Personalised recommendations