Other Approaches

  • Gerhard GarhöferEmail author
  • Leopold Schmetterer

Core Messages

  • Beside the classical techniques to assess ocular blood flow, several methods exists which aim to measure specific components of ocular blood flow. In this ­chapter, the blue field entoptic technique, the laser specle technique and methods that assess the pulsatile ocular blood flow will be covered.

Blue Field Entoptic Technique

The blue field entoptic technique is a semiquantitative, subjective method that uses the optical blue field entoptic phenomenon to estimate retinal capillary blood flow in retinal perifoveal vessels [27]. Basically, entoptic phenomena are defined as visual effects, observed under certain illumination conditions, whose source lies within the eye itself. The blue field effect is the most well known among these entoptic phenomena.

The blue field entoptic phenomenon can ­easily be seen when looking into a blue light with a narrow optical spectrum at a wavelength of approximately 430 nm. In daily life, the blue field effect can be produced when looking...


Optic Nerve Head Laser Doppler Velocimetry Ocular Blood Flow Retinal Blood Flow Choroidal Blood Flow 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Clinical PharmacologyMedical University of ViennaViennaAustria
  2. 2.Department of Clinical Pharmacology, Center of Medical Physics and Biomedical EngineeringMedical University of ViennaViennaAustria

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