• Knowledge of the hormonal aspects of voice is necessary in highly qualified choirs and in pathology as well.

  • Phonetograms may make pupils conscious about their qualifications and can be measured before and after treatment of pathological cases.

  • Phonetograms can be “beautiful”, showing smooth variations for low and high intensities with no register shift, e.g. sopranos in the Thomaner choir in Leipzig.

  • The fundamental frequency development is an interesting biological parameter in puberty and the basis for mathematical models, e.g. in technology, biology, brain research and telecommunications.


Fundamental Frequency Secondary Sexual Characteristic Hormonal Aspect Pathological Voice Singing Voice 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

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