Materials and Method

  • 48 boys and 47 girls were systematically analysed in a stratified study at a choir school. A basic test of capability of reproducing tones and rhythms was made at the entrance to the choir.

  • Phonetograms were made with the standardization of the Union of European Phoniatricians.

  • Fundamental frequency was based on 2,000 cycles of electroglottographical measurements.

  • Hormone measures included serumtesterostone, dehydroepiandrosteron, delta-4, androsteron, oestradiol, oestrone, and oestrone sulphate plus sex hormone binding globulin. The five pubertal stages were measured.

  • The BMDP statistical programme based on logarithms was used for the one-way multivariate analysis and prospective aspects.


Fundamental Frequency School Class Pubertal Stage Geometric Cross Section Pubic Hair Development 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

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