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Modern Epidemiology

  • Eduardo Massad
  • Neli Regina Siqueira Ortega
  • Laecio Carvalho de Barros
  • Claudio José Struchiner
Chapter
Part of the Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing book series (STUDFUZZ, volume 232)

Abstract

In his masterpiece The Growth of Biological Thought Ernest Mayr (1982) postulated that the change of the typological to populational thinking is the most important conceptual revolution in biology. This conjecture of Mayr was based on his interest in the evolution and variation of birds, and his observations of the variety within populations led him to conclude that it is individuality that is the chief characteristic within populations rather than any criterion of sameness (Childs, 1999). Variation, therefore, is the biological substrate upon which evolution by natural selection and other stochastic mechanism constructs life and humans beings are not exception. In typological thinking the type (the equivalent to the statistical mean in populational thinking) is real and the deviation from the type (the equivalent to the statistical variance in populational thinking) is an abstraction. In contrast, in population thinking the variance is real and the meanis an abstraction.

Keywords

Index Case Cellular Automaton Host Population Basic Reproduction Number Monte Carlo Step 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eduardo Massad
    • 1
  • Neli Regina Siqueira Ortega
    • 1
  • Laecio Carvalho de Barros
    • 2
  • Claudio José Struchiner
    • 3
  1. 1.The University of São Paulo, São PauloBrazil
  2. 2.State University of Campinas, CampinasBrazil
  3. 3.PROCC, Rio de JaneiroBrazil

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