Learning in Practice: New Approaches to Professional Development for Radiologists

  • I. J. ParboosinghEmail author
  • B. P. Wood
  • L. M. Samson
  • C. M. Campbell

Radiologists, as other professionals, acquire their expertise from two coexisting learning paradigms. In the first, learning is planned, with observable objectives and performance outcomes to be assessed. This remains the model of traditional formal education, including continuing medical education (CME), a complex and extensive component of lifelong education. The effectiveness of this learning model in today’s rapidly expanding and complex environment remains limited (Davis et al. 1995). The second paradigm emphasizes learning from experience and is driven by three motivating forces: practice and performance creates the curriculum; reflection powers the learning process; but one’s self controls learning. Unlike formal education, learning and evaluation of learning in practice has not been extensively researched (Kuper et al. 2007). Knowledge-intensive work traditionally relies on learning from practice and has a research literature.


Professional Development Lifelong Learning Continue Medical Education Continue Professional Development Complex Adaptive System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Batalden P, Davidoff F (2007) Teaching quality improvement: The devil is in the details. JAMA 298:1059–1061PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Berwick DM (2003) Improvement, trust, and the healthcare workforce. Qualit Saf Heal Care 12:448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brigley S, Young Y, Littlejohns P, McEwen J (1997) Continuing education for medical professionals: A reflective model. Postgrad Med J 73:23–26PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Butler J (1996) Professional development: Practice as text, reflections as process, and self as locus. Aust J Ed 40:265–283Google Scholar
  5. Campbell C, Parboosingh J, Gondocz T, Babitskya G, Lindsay E, De Guzman R, Klein L (1996) Study of physicians’ use of a software program to create a portfolio of their self-directed learning. Academ Med 71:s49–s51Google Scholar
  6. Candy PC (1991) Self-direction for lifelong learning, Jossey-Bass Higher and Adult Education Series. Jossey-Bass, San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
  7. Coiera E (2004) Four rules for the reinvention of health care. BMJ 328:1197–1199PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Coles C (2000) Developing our intuitive knowing: An alternative approach to the assessment of doctors. In: Bashook PG, Miller SH, Parboosingh J, Horowitz SG (eds) Credentialing physician specialists: A world perspective: Proceedings of the conference held in Chicago. The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, Ottawa and the American Board of Medical Specialties, EvanstonGoogle Scholar
  9. Davis DA, Thomson MA, Oxman AD, Haynes RB (1995) Changing physician performance. A systematic review of the effect of continuing medical education strategies. JAMA 274:700–705PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Derrick GM (2003) Creating environments conducive for lifelong learning. New Dir Adult Cont Educ 100:5–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Erturk SM, Ondategui-Parra S, Ros PR (2005) Quality management in radiology: Historical aspects and basic definitions. J Am Coll Radiol 2:985–991PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Fletcher SW (2008) Chairman’s summary of the conference. In: Hager M (ed) Continuing education in the health professions: Improving healthcare through lifelong learning, 2007 Nov 28–Dec 1, Bermuda. Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. Frankford DM, Patterson MA, Konrad RT (2000) Transforming practice organizations to foster lifelong learning and commitment to medical professionalism. Acad Med 175:708–717CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Garrison R, Arbaugh JB (2007) Researching the community of inquiry framework: Review, issues, and future directions. Int High Educ 10:157–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gittell JH, Fairfield KM, Bierbaum B, Head W, Jackson R, Kelly M et al. (2000) Impact of relational coordination on quality of care, postoperative pain and functioning, and length of stay; a nine-hospital study of surgical patients. Medical care 38(8):807–819.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Graham ID, Logan J, Harrison MB, Straus SE, Tetroe J, Caswell W and Robinson N (2006) Lost in knowledge translation: Time for a map. J Contin Educ Health Prof 26:13–24PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Grimshaw J, Eccles M, Tetroe J (2004) Implementing clinical guidelines: Current evidence and future implications. J Contin Educ Health Prof 24(Spl):S31–S37PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Johnson BC, Manyika JM and Yee LA (2005) The next revolution in interaction. The McKinsey quarterly: The Online Journal of McKinsey & Co, Volume 4: http://www.mckinseyquarterly. com/article_page.aspx?ar=1690&L2=18&L3=30&srid=27&gp=0 Accessed 24 April 2008
  19. Knowles MS (1975) Self-directed learning: A guide for learners and teachers. Associated Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  20. Kolb D (1984). Experiential learning. Prentice-Hall, Englewood CliffsGoogle Scholar
  21. Kuper A, Reeves S, Albert M, Hodges BD (2007) Assessment: Do we need to broaden our methodological horizons? Med Educ 41:1121–1123PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Mann K, Gordon J, MacLeod A (2007) Reflection and reflective practice in health professions education: a systematic review. Adv Health Sci Educ. doi:10.1007/sl0459-007-9090-2Google Scholar
  23. McDaniel R, Driebe D (2001) Complexity science and health care management. In: Blair JD, Fottler MD and Savage GT (eds) Advances in health care management vol 2. JAI Press, StamfordGoogle Scholar
  24. Parboosingh J (2002) Physician communities of practice: where learning and practice are unseparable. J. Continuing Education in Health Professions. 24(4):230–236.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Pawar M (2005) Committees and boards in healthcare organizations: Barriers to organizational learning? Reflect 6:12–22Google Scholar
  26. Polin L et al (2001) Lateral mentoring. Pepperdine University Online Master of Arts in Educational Technology, unpublished PDFGoogle Scholar
  27. RCPSC (2008) RCPSC Maintenance of Certification Program Guide 2008. The Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Canada, Ottawa Accessed 24 April 2008Google Scholar
  28. Saint-Onge H, Wallace D (2003) Leveraging communities of practice for strategic advantage. Butterworth Heinemann, an imprint of ElsevierGoogle Scholar
  29. Schon DA (1987) Educating the reflective practitioner. Jossey Bass, San Francisco, CAGoogle Scholar
  30. Strife JL, Kun LE, Becker GJ, Dunnick NR, Bosma J, Hattery RR (2007) The American Board of Radiology Perspective on maintenance of certification: Part IV—Practice quality improvement in diagnostic radiology. RadioGraph 27:769–774CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Suter E, Arndt J, Arthur N, Parboosingh J, Taylor E, Deutschlander S. Role understanding and effective communication as core competencies for collaborative practice. J. Interprofessional Care 2008. In press.Google Scholar
  32. Swensen SJ, Johnson CD (2005) Radiologic quality and safety: Mapping value into radiology. J Am Coll Radiol 2:992–1000PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Thomas P, McDonnell J, McCulloch J, While A, Bosanquet N, Ferlie E (2005) Increasing capacity for innovation in bureaucratic primary care organizations: A whole system participatory action research project. Ann Fam Med 3:312–317PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Tough A (1971) The adult learning projects: A fresh approach to theory and practice in adult learning. Ontario Institute for Studies in Education, Toronto, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  35. Wenger E, McDermott R, Snyder W (2002) Cultivating communities of practice: A guide to managing knowledge. Harvard Business School Press, BostonGoogle Scholar
  36. Westrum R (2004) A typology of organizational cultures. Qual Saf Health Care 13:22–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • I. J. Parboosingh
    • 1
    Email author
  • B. P. Wood
    • 2
  • L. M. Samson
    • 3
  • C. M. Campbell
    • 4
  1. 1.Obstetrics & Gynecology, and Medical EducationUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada
  2. 2.Radiology, Pediatrics and Medical Education Keck School of MedicineUniversity of Southern CaliforniaLos AngelesUSA
  3. 3.Royal College of Physicians & Surgeons of CanadaOttawaCanada
  4. 4.Office of Professional AffairsRoyal College of Physicians and Surgeons of CanadaOttawaCanada

Personalised recommendations