Cell Therapy and Gene Therapy Using Endothelial Progenitor Cells for Vascular Regeneration
The isolation of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) derived from adult bone marrow (BM) was an epoch-making event for the recognition of “neovessel formation” occurring as physiological and pathological responses in adults. The finding that EPCs home to sites of neovascularization and differentiate into endothelial cells (ECs) in situ is consistent with “vasculogenesis,” a critical paradigm well described for embryonic neovascularization, but proposed recently in adults, in which a reservoir of stem or progenitor cells contributes to vascular organogenesis. EPCs have also been considered as therapeutic agents to supply the potent origin of neovascularization under pathological conditions. Considering the regenerative implications, gene modification of stem cells has advantages over conventional gene therapy. Ex vivo gene transfection of stem cells may avoid administration of vectors and vehicles into the recipient organism. Stem cells isolated from adults may exhibit age-related, genetic, or acquired disease-related impairment of their regenerative ability. Transcriptional or enzymatic gene modification may constitute an effective means to maintain, enhance, or inhibit EPCs’ capacity to proliferate or differentiate. This chapter provides an update of EPC biology as well as EPCs’ potential use for therapeutic regeneration.
KeywordsEndothelial progenitor cells Gene therapy Therapeutic vasculogenesis Vascular regeneration
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