Advertisement

Whispovirus

  • J. -H. Leu
  • F. Yang
  • X. Zhang
  • X. Xu
  • G. -H. Kou
  • C. -F. LoEmail author
Part of the Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology book series (CT MICROBIOLOGY, volume 328)

During the last two decades, a combination of poor management practices and intensive culturing of penaeid shrimp has led to the outbreak of several viral diseases. White spot disease (WSD) is one of the most devastating and it can cause massive death in cultured shrimp. Following its first appearance in 1992–1993 in Asia, this disease spread globally and caused serious economic losses. The causative agent of WSD is white spot syndrome virus (WSSV), which is a large, nonoccluded, enveloped, rod- or elliptical-shaped, dsDNA virus of approximately 300 kbp. WSSV has a very broad host range among crustaceans. It infects many tissues and multiplies in the nucleus of the target cell. WSSV is a lytic virus, and in the late stage of infection, the infected cells disintegrate, causing the destruction of affected tissues. The WSSV genome contains at least 181 ORFs. Most of these encode proteins that show no homology to known proteins, although a few ORFs encode proteins with identifiable features, and these are mainly involved in nucleotide metabolism and DNA replication. Nine homologous regions with highly repetitive sequences occur in the genome. More than 40 structural protein genes have been identified, and other WSSV genes with known functions include immediate early genes, latency-related genes, ubiquitination-related genes, and anti-apoptosis genes. Based on temporal expression profiles, WSSV genes can be classified as early or late genes, and they are regulated as coordinated cascades under the control of different promoters. Both genetic analyses and morphological features reveal the uniqueness of WSSV, and therefore it was recently classified as the sole species of a new monotypic family called Nimaviridae (genus Whispovirus).

Keywords

White Spot Syndrome Virus Internal Ribosome Entry Site Penaeid Shrimp White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection Structural Protein Gene 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Astrofsky KM, Roux MM, Klimpel KR, Fox JG, Dhar AK (2002) Isolation of differentially expressed genes from white spot virus (WSV) infected Pacific blue shrimp ( Penaeus styliros-tris ). Arch Virol 147:1799–1812PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Chang PS, Lo CF, Wang YC, Kou GH (1996) Identification of white spot syndrome associated baculovirus (WSBV) target organs in the shrimp Penaeus monodon by in situ hybridization. Dis Aquat Org 27:131–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Chazal N, Gerlier D (2003) Virus entry, assembly, budding, and membrane rafts. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 67:226–237PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chen LL, Leu JH, Huang CJ, Chou CM, Chen SM, Wang CH, Lo CF, Kou GH (2002a)Identification of a nucleocapsid protein (VP35) gene of shrimp white spot syndrome virus andcharacterization of the motif important for targeting VP35 to the nuclei of transfected insect cells. Virology 293:44–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen LL, Wang HC, Huang CJ, Peng SE, Chen YG, Lin SJ, Chen WY, Dai CF, Yu HT, Wang CH, Lo CF, Kou GH (2002b) Transcriptional analysis of the DNA polymerase gene of shrimp white spot syndrome virus. Virology 301:136–147CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cherbas L, Cherbas P (1993) The arthropod initiator: the capsite consensus plays an important role in transcription. Insect Biochem Mol Biol 23:81–90PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dhar AK, Dettori A, Roux MM, Klimpel KR, Read B (2003) Identification of differentially expressed genes in shrimp ( Penaeus stylirostris ) infected with white spot syndrome virus by cDNA microarrays. Arch Virol 148:2381–2396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Durand S, Lightner DV, Nunan LM, Redman RM, Mari J, Bonami JR (1996) Application of gene probes as diagnostic tools for white spot baculovirus (WSBV) of penaeid shrimp. Dis Aquat Org 27:59–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Durand S, Lightner DV, Redman RM, Bonami JR (1997) Ultrastructure and morphogenesis of white spot syndrome baculovirus (WSSV). Dis Aquat Org 29:205–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Flegel TW (1997) Special topic review: major viral diseases of the black tiger prawn ( Penaeusmonodon ) in Thailand. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 13:433–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Flegel TW (2006) Detection of major penaeid shrimp viruses in Asia, a historical perspective with emphasis on Thailand. Aquaculture 258:1–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Han F, Zhang X (2006) Internal initiation of mRNA translation in insect cell mediated by an internal ribosome entry site (IRES) from shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Biochem Biophys Res Commun 344:893–899PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. He F, Fenner BJ, Godwin AK, Kwang J (2006) White spot syndrome virus open reading frame 222 encodes a viral E3 ligase and mediates degradation of a host tumor suppressor via ubiqui-tination. J Virol 80:3884–3892PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. He N, Qin Q, Xu X (2005) Differential profile of genes expressed in hemocytes of white spot syndrome virus-resistant shrimp ( Penaeus japonicus ) by combining suppression subtractive hybridization and differential hybridization. Antivir Res 66:39–45PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hossain MS, Khadijah S, Kwang J (2004) Characterization of ORF89-a latency-related gene of white spot syndrome virus. Virology 325:106–115PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Huang C, Zhang L, Zhang J, Xiao L, Wu Q, Chen D, Li JK (2001) Purification and characterization of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) produced in an alternate host: crayfish, Cambarusclarkii. Virus Res 76:115–125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Huang C, Zhang X, Lin Q, Xu X, Hu Z, Hew CL (2002) Proteomic analysis of shrimp white spot syndrome viral proteins and characterization of a novel envelope protein VP466. Mol Cell Proteomics 1:223–231PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Jiravanichpaisal P, Bangyeekhun E, Soderhall K, Soderhall I (2001) Experimental infection of white spot syndrome virus in freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus. Dis Aquat Orga 47:151–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jiravanichpaisal P, Soderhall K, Soderhall I (2006) Characterization of white spot syndrome virus replication in in vitro-cultured haematopoietic stem cells of freshwater crayfish, Pacifastacus leniusculus. J Gen Virol 87:847–854PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Khadijah S, Neo S Y, Hossain MS, Miller LD, Mathavan S, Kwang J (2003) Identification of white spot syndrome virus latency-related genes in specific-pathogen-free shrimps by use of a micro-array. J Virol 77:10162–10167PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lan Y, Lu W, Xu X (2002) Genomic instability of prawn white spot bacilliform virus (WSBV)and its association to virus virulence. Virus Res 90:269–274PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lan Y, Xu X, Yang F, Zhang X (2006) Transcriptional profile of shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) genes with DNA microarray. Arch Virol 151:1723–1733PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Leu JH, Tsai JM, Wang HC, Wang AH, Wang CH, Kou GH, Lo CF (2005) The unique stacked rings in the nucleocapsid of the white spot syndrome virus virion are formed by the major structural protein VP664, the largest viral structural protein ever found. J Virol 79:140–149PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Leu JH, Chang CC, Wu JL, Hsu CW, Hirono I, Aoki T, Juan HF, Lo CF, Kou GH, Huang HC (2007) Comparative analysis of differentially expressed genes in normal and white spot syndrome virus infected Penaeus monodon. BMC Genomics 8:120PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Li H, Zhu Y, Yang F (2006) Identification of a novel envelope protein (VP187) gene from shrimp white spot syndrome virus. Virus Res 115:76–84PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Li L, Lin S, Yang F (2005) Functional identification of the non-specific nuclease from white spot syndrome virus. Virology 337:399–406PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Li L, Lin S, Yang F (2006) Characterization of an envelope protein (VP110) of white spot syndrome virus. J Gen Virol 87:1909–1915PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Li Q, Chen Y, Yang F (2004a) Identification of a collagen-like protein gene from white spot syndrome virus. Arch Virol 149:215–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Li Q, Pan D, Zhang JH, Yang F (2004b) Identification of the thymidylate synthase within the genome of white spot syndrome virus. J Gen Virol 85:2035–2044CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Lin ST, Chang YS, Wang HC, Tzeng HF, Chang ZF, Lin JY, Wang CH, Lo CF, Kou GH (2002) Ribonucleotide reductase of shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV): expression and enzymatic activity in a baculovirus/insect cell system and WSSV-infected shrimp. Virology 304:282–290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Liu H, Soderhall I (2007) Histone H2A as a transfection agent in crayfish hematopoietic tissue cells. Dev Comp Immunol 31:340–346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Liu WJ, Yu HT, Peng SE, Chang YS, Pien HW, Lin CJ, Huang CJ, Tsai MF, Huang CJ, Wang CH, Lin J Y, Lo CF, Kou GH (2001) Cloning, characterization, and phylogenetic analysis of a shrimp white spot syndrome virus gene that encodes a protein kinase. Virology 289:362–377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Liu WJ, Chang YS, Wang CH, Kou GH, Lo CF (2005) Microarray and RT-PCR screening for white spot syndrome virus immediate-early genes in cycloheximide-treated shrimp. Virology 334:327–341PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Liu WJ, Chang YS, Wang AH, Kou GH, Lo CF (2007) White spot syndrome virus annexes a shrimp STAT to enhance expression of the immediate-early gene ie1. J Virol 81:1461–1471PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Liu X, Yang F (2005) Identification and function of a shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV)gene that encodes a dUTPase. Virus Res 110:21–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Liu Y, Wu JL, Song J, Sivaraman J, Hew CL (2006) Identification of a novel nonstructural protein, VP9, from white spot syndrome virus: its structure reveals a ferredoxin fold with specific metal binding sites. J Virol 80:10419–10427PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Lo CF, Ho CH, Peng SE, Chen CH, Hsu HC, Chiu YL, Chang CF, Liu KF, Su MS, Wang CH, Kou GH (1996) White spot syndrome baculovirus (WSBV) detected in cultured and captured shrimps, crabs and other arthropods. Dis Aquat Org 27:215–225CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lo CF, Ho CH, Chen CH, Liu KF, Chiu YL, Yeh PY, Peng SE, Hsu HE, Liu HC, Chang CF, Su MS, Wang CH, Kou GH (1997) Detection and tissue tropism of white spot syndrome baculo-virus (WSBV) in captured brooders of Penaeus monodon with a special emphasis on reproductive organs. Dis Aquat Org 30:53–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lu L, Kwang J (2004) Identification of a novel shrimp protein phosphatase and its association with latency-related ORF427 of white spot syndrome virus. FEBS Lett 577:141–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Marks H, Mennens M, Vlak JM, van Hulten MC (2003) Transcriptional analysis of the white spot syndrome virus major virion protein genes. J Gen Virol 84:1517–1523PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Marks H, Goldbach RW, Vlak JM, van Hulten MC (2004) Genetic variation among isolates of white spot syndrome virus. Arch Virol 149:673–697PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Marks H, Vorst O, van Houwelingen AM, van Hulten MC, Vlak JM (2005) Gene-expression profiling of white spot syndrome virus in vivo. J Gen Virol 86:2081–2100PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Marks H, Ren XY, Sandbrink H, van Hulten MC, Vlak JM (2006) In silico identification of putative promoter motifs of white spot syndrome virus. BMC Bioinformatics 7:309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health, formerly Office International des Epizooties)(2003a) Manual of diagnostic tests for aquatic animals, 4th edn. OIE, Paris.Google Scholar
  45. Pan D, He N, Yang Z, Liu H, Xu X (2005) Differential gene expression profile in hepatopancreasof WSSV-resistant shrimp ( Penaeus japonicus ) by suppression subtractive hybridization. Dev Comp Immunol 29:103–112PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Pramod Kiran RB, Rajendran KV, Jung SJ, Oh MJ (2002) Experimental susceptibility of different life-stages of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man), to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). J Fish Dis 25:201–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Radtke K, Dohner K, Sodeik B (2006) Viral interactions with the cytoskeleton: a hitchhiker's guide to the cell. Cell Microbiol 8:387–400PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Robalino J, Browdy CL, Prior S, Metz A, Parnell P, Gross P, Warr G (2004) Induction of antiviral immunity by double-stranded RNA in a marine invertebrate. J Virol 78:10442–10448PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Robalino J, Bartlett T, Shepard E, Prior S, Jaramillo G, Scura E, Chapman RW, Gross PS, Browdy CL, Warr GW (2005) Double-stranded RNA induces sequence-specific antiviral silencing in addition to nonspecific immunity in a marine shrimp: convergence of RNA interference and innate immunity in the invertebrate antiviral response? J Virol 79:13561–13571PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Robalino J, Payne C, Parnell P, Shepard E, Grimes AC, Metz A, Prior S, Witteveldt J, Vlak JM, Gross PS, Warr G, Browdy CL (2006) Inactivation of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) by normal rabbit serum: implications for the role of the envelope protein VP28 in WSSV infection of shrimp. Virus Res 118:55–61PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Rojtinnakorn J, Hirono I, Itami T, Takahashi Y, Aoki T (2002) Gene expression in heamocytes of kuruma prawn, Penaeus japonicus, in response to infection with WSSV by EST approach. Fish Shell Immunol 13:69–83CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sritunyalucksana K, Wannapapho W, Lo CF, Flegel TW (2006) PmRab7 is a VP28-binding protein involved in white spot syndrome virus infection in shrimp. J Virol 80:10734–10742PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Tang X, Wu J, Sivaraman J, Hew CL (2007) Crystal structures of major envelope proteins VP26 and VP28 from white spot syndrome virus shed light on their evolutionary relationship. J Virol 81:6709–6717PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Tsai JM, Wang HC, Leu JH, Hsiao HH, Wang AH, Kou GH, Lo CF (2004) Genomic and pro-teomic analysis of thirty-nine structural proteins of shrimp white spot syndrome virus. J Virol 78:11360–11370PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Tsai JM, Wang HC, Leu JH, Wang AH, Zhuang Y, Walker PJ, Kou GH, Lo CF (2006) Identification of the nucleocapsid, tegument, and envelope proteins of the shrimp white spot syndrome virus virion. J Virol 80:3021–3029PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Tsai MF, Lo CF, van Hulten MC, Tzeng HF, Chou CM, Huang CJ, Wang CH, Lin JY, Vlak JM, Kou GH (2000a) Transcriptional analysis of the ribonucleotide reductase genes of shrimp white spot syndrome virus. Virology 277:92–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Tsai MF, Yu HT, Tzeng HF, Leu JH, Chou CM, Huang CJ, Wang CH, Lin JY, Kou GH, Lo CF (2000b) Identification and characterization of a shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) gene that encodes a novel chimeric polypeptide of cellular-type thymidine kinase and thymi-dylate kinase. Virology 277:100–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Tzeng HF, Chang ZF, Peng SE, Wang CH, Lin JY, Kou GH, Lo CF (2002) Chimeric polypeptide of thymidine kinase and thymidylate kinase of shrimp white spot syndrome virus: thymidine kinase activity of the recombinant protein expressed in a baculovirus/insect cell system.Virology 299:248–255PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. van Hulten MC, Vlak JM (2001) Identification and phylogeny of a protein kinase gene of white spot syndrome virus. Virus Genes 22:201–207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. van Hulten MC, Goldbach RW, Vlak JM (2000a) Three functionally diverged major structural proteins of white spot syndrome virus evolved by gene duplication. J Gen Virol 81:2525–2529Google Scholar
  61. van Hulten MC, Westenberg M, Goodall SD, Vlak JM (2000b) Identification of two major virion protein genes of white spot syndrome virus of shrimp. Virology 266:227–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. van Hulten MC, Witteveldt J, Peters S, Kloosterboer N, Tarchini R, Fiers M, Sandbrink H, Lankhorst RK, Vlak JM (2001a) The white spot syndrome virus DNA genome sequence.Virology 286:7–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. van Hulten MC, Witteveldt J, Snippe M, Vlak JM (2001b) White spot syndrome virus envelope protein VP28 is involved in the systemic infection of shrimp. Virology 285:228–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. van Hulten MC, Reijns M, Vermeesch AM, Zandbergen F, Vlak JM (2002) Identification of VP19 and VP15 of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and glycosylation status of the WSSV major structural proteins. J Gen Virol 83:257–265PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Venegas CA, Nonaka L, Mushiake K, Shimizu K, Nishizawa T, Muroga K (1999) Pathogenicity of penaeid rod-shaped DNA virus PRDV to Kuruma prawn in different development stages.Fish Pathol 34:19–23Google Scholar
  66. Wang B, Li F, Dong B, Zhang X, Zhang C, Xiang J (2006) Discovery of the genes in response to white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) infection in Fenneropenaeus chinensis through cDNA microarray. Mar Biotechnol 8:491–500PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Wang CH, Lo CF, Leu JH, Chou CM, Yeh PY, Chou HY, Tung MC, Chang CF, Su MS, Kou GH (1995) Purification and genomic analysis of baculovirus associated with white spot syndrome (WSBV) of Penaeus monodon. Dis Aquat Org 23:239–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Wang CH, Yang HN, Tang CY, Lu CH, Kou GH, Lo CF (2000) Ultrastructure of white spot syndrome virus development in primary lymphoid organ cell cultures. Dis Aquat Org 41:91–104PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Wang CS, Tang KFJ, Kou GH, Chen SN (1997) Light and electron microscopic evidence of white spot disease in the giant tiger shrimp, Penaeus monodon (Fabricius), and the kuruma shrimp,Penaeus japonicus (Bate), cultured in Taiwan. J Fish Dis 20:323–331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Wang HC, Lin AT, Yii DM, Chang YS, Kou GH, Lo CF (2003) DNA microarrays of the white spot syndrome virus genome: genes expressed in the gills of infected shrimp. Proceedings of Marine Biotechnology Conference 2003 (P1–045)Google Scholar
  71. Wang HC, Wang HC, Kou GH, Lo CF, Huang WP (2007a) Identification of icp11, the most highly expressed gene of shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV). Dis Aquat Org 74:179–189CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Wang HC, Wang HC, Leu JH, Kou GH, Wang AH, Lo CF (2007b) Protein expression profiling of the shrimp cellular response to white spot syndrome virus infection. Dev Comp Immunol 31:672–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Wang YG, Hassan MD, Sharriff M, Zamri SM, Chen X (1999) Histopathology and cytopathology of white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in cultured Penaeus monodon from peninsular Malaysia with emphasis on pathogenesis and the mechanism of white spot formation. Dis Aquat Org 39:1–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Wang Z, Hu L, Yi G, Xu H, Qi Y, Yao L (2004) ORF390 of white spot syndrome virus genome is identified as a novel anti-apoptosis gene. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 325:899–907PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Wang Z, Chua HK, Gusti AA, He F, Fenner B, Manopo I, Wang H, Kwang J (2005) RING-H2 protein WSSV249 from white spot syndrome virus sequesters a shrimp ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme, PvUbc, for viral pathogenesis. J Virol 79:8764–8772PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Witteveldt J, Vermeesch AM, Langenhof M, de Lang A, Vlak JM, van Hulten MC (2005)Nucleocapsid protein VP15 is the basic DNA binding protein of white spot syndrome virus of shrimp. Arch Virol 150:1121–1133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Wongprasert K, Khanobdee K, Glunukarn SS, Meeratana P, Withyachumnarnkul B (2003) Time-course and levels of apoptosis in various tissues of black tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon infected with white-spot syndrome virus. Dis Aquat Org 55:3–10PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Wongteerasupaya C, Vickers JE, Sriuairatana S, Nash GL, Akarajamorn A, Boonsaeng V, Panyim S, Tassanakajon A, Withyachumnarnkul B, Flegel TW (1995) A non-occluded, systemic baculovirus that occurs in cells of ectodermal and mesodermal origin and causes high mortality in the black tiger prawn Penaeus monodon. Dis Aquat Org 21:69–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Wu JL, Suzuki K, Arimoto M, Nishizawa T, Muroga K (2002) Preparation of an inoculum of white spot syndrome virus for challenge tests in Penaeus japonicus. Fish Pathol 37:65–69Google Scholar
  80. Xie X, Yang F (2005) Interaction of white spot syndrome virus VP26 protein with actin. Virology 336:93–99PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Xie X, Xu L, Yang F (2006) Proteomic analysis of the major envelope and nucleocapsid proteins of white spot syndrome virus. J Virol 80:10615–10623PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Yang F, He J, Lin X, Li Q, Pan D, Zhang X, Xu X (2001) Complete genome sequence of the shrimp white spot bacilliform virus. J Virol 75:11811–11820PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Yoganandhan K, Narayanan RB, Sahul Hameed AS (2003) Larvae and early post-larvae of Penaeus monodon (Fabricius) experimentally infected with white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) show no significant mortality. J Fish Dis 26:385–391PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Zhang X, Xu X, Hew CL (2001) The structure and function of a gene encoding a basic peptide from prawn white spot syndrome virus. Virus Res 79:137–144PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Zhang X, Huang C, Xu X, Hew CL (2002) Identification and localization of a prawn white spot syndrome virus gene that encodes an envelope protein. J Gen Virol 83:1069–1074PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. Zhang X, Huang C, Tang X, Zhuang Y, Hew CL (2004) Identification of structural proteins from shrimp white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) by 2DE-MS. Proteins 55:229–235PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Zhu Y, Ding Q, Yang F (2007) Characterization of a homologous-region-binding protein from white spot syndrome virus by phage display. Virus Res 125:145–152PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • J. -H. Leu
    • 1
  • F. Yang
    • 2
  • X. Zhang
    • 2
  • X. Xu
    • 2
  • G. -H. Kou
    • 3
  • C. -F. Lo
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Lo Institute of ZoologyNational Taiwan UniversityTaiwanROC
  2. 2.Key Laboratory of Marine Biogenetic ResourcesThird Institute of Oceanography, SOAXiamenPR China
  3. 3.Institute of ZoologyNational Taiwan UniversityTaiwanROC

Personalised recommendations