Skip to main content

Network Measures in Civil Air Transport: A Case Study of Lufthansa

  • Chapter

Part of the Lecture Notes in Economics and Mathematical Systems book series (LNE,volume 613)

Air transport networks have exhibited a trend towards complex dynamics in recent years. Using Lufthansa's networks as an example, this paper aims to illustrate the relevance of various network indicators — such as connectivity and concentration — for the empirical analysis of airline network configurations. The results highlight the actual strategic choices made by Lufthansa for its own network, as well in combination with its partners in Star Alliance.

Keywords

  • Network Measure
  • Closeness Centrality
  • Airline Network
  • Multi Criterion Analysis
  • Timetable Coordination

These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Buying options

Chapter
USD   29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-540-68409-1_14
  • Chapter length: 26 pages
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
eBook
USD   109.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • ISBN: 978-3-540-68409-1
  • Instant PDF download
  • Readable on all devices
  • Own it forever
  • Exclusive offer for individuals only
  • Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout
Softcover Book
USD   139.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Adamic LA (2000) Zipf, power-laws, and Pareto — ranking tutorial. http://www.hpl.hp.com.Accessed 16 Apr 2007

  2. Albert R, Barabasi A-L (2002) Statistical mechanics of complex networks. Rev Mod Phys 74:47–97

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  3. Alderighi M, Cento A, Nijkamp P, Rietveld P (2007) Assessment of new hub-and-spoke andpoint-to-point airline network configurations. Transp Rev 27:529–549

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  4. Barabási LA, Albert R (1999) Emerging of scaling in random networks. Science 286:509–512

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  5. Barabási A-L and Bonabeau E (2003) Scale-Free Networks, Scientific American 288(5), pp. 50–59

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  6. Barabási LA, Oltvai ZN (2004) Network's biology: understanding the cell's functional organization. Nat Rev Genet 5:101–113

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  7. Barrat A, Barthélemy M, Pastor-Satorras R, Vespignani A (2004) The architecture of complex weighted networks. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 101(11):3747–3752 http://www.pnas.org/cgi/doi//10.1073/pnas.0400087101

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  8. Barthelemy M (2003) Crossover from scale-free to spatial networks. Europhys Lett 63:915–921

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  9. Boccaletti S, Latora V, Moreno Y, Chavez M, Hwang D-U (2006) Complex networks: structure and dynamics. Phys Rep 424:175á308

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  10. Bootsma PD (1997) Airline flight schedule development; analysis and design tools for European hinterland hubs. University of Twente, Utrecht

    Google Scholar 

  11. Boschma RA (2005) Proximity and innovation. a critical assessment. Reg Stud 39:61–74

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  12. Bossomaier TRJ and Green DG (2000) Introduction. In TRJ Bossomaier and DG Green (eds),Complex Systems (pp. 2–9). Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press

    Google Scholar 

  13. Bowen J (2002) Network change, deregulation, and access in the global airline industry. Econ Geogr 78:425–439

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  14. Burghouwt G, de Wit J (2003) The temporal configuration of European airline networks.University of Montreal, Publication AJD-74

    Google Scholar 

  15. Button K, Stough R (2000) Air transport networks: theory and policy implications. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham

    Google Scholar 

  16. Caves DW, Christensen LR, Tretheway MW (1984) Economics of density versus economies of scale: why trunks and local service airline costs differ. Rand J Econ 15:471–489

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  17. Cento A (2006) Challenge to the airline industry: emergence of carriers and low cost carriers. PhD Thesis, VU University, Amsterdam

    Google Scholar 

  18. Dennis NPS (1998) Competition between hub airports in Europe and a methodology for forecasting connecting traffic. In: 8th World Conference on Transport Research, Antwerp

    Google Scholar 

  19. Erdos P, Renyi A (1959) On random graphs I. Publ Math 6:290–297

    Google Scholar 

  20. Freeman LC (1977) A set of measures of centrality based on betweenness. Sociometry 40:35–41

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  21. Freeman LC (1979) Centrality in social networks: a conceptual clarification. Soc Netw 1:215–239

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  22. Frenken K (2006) Innovation, Evolution and Complexity Theory. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham

    Google Scholar 

  23. Gorman SP (2005) Networks, security and complexity. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham

    Google Scholar 

  24. Gorman SP, Kulkarni R (2004) Spatial small worlds. Environ Plan B 31:273–296

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  25. Harary F (1969) Graph Theory. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA

    Google Scholar 

  26. Hinloopen E, Nijkamp P (1990) Qualitative multiple criteria choice analysis: the dominant regime method. Qual Quant 24:37–56

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  27. Jeong H (2003) Complex scale-free networks. Phys A 321:226–237

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  28. Lijesen MG (2004) Adjusting the Herfindahl index for close substitutes: an application to pricing in civil aviation. Transp Res E 40:123–134

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  29. Lufthansa (2005) Annual report. http://konzern.lufthansa.com/en/html/ueber_uns/swiss/ index.html

  30. McShan WS (1986) An economic analysis of hub-and-spoke routing strategy in the airline industry. PhD Thesis, Northwestern University

    Google Scholar 

  31. Newman MEJ (2003) A measure of betweenness centrality based on random walks. arXiv:cond-mat/0309045

    Google Scholar 

  32. Nijkamp P, Reggiani A (1992) Interaction, evolution and chaos in space. Springer, Berlin

    Google Scholar 

  33. O' Kelly EM, Miller HJ (1994) The hub network design problem: an overview and synthesis.J Transp Geogr 2:31–40

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  34. OAG (2006) Official Airline Guides. Worldwide flight guide. Reed Publications.http://www.oag.com

  35. Patuelli R (2007) Regional labour markets in Germany: statistical analysis of spatio-temporal disparities and network structures. PhD Thesis, VU University Amsterdam

    Google Scholar 

  36. Reggiani A, Nijkamp P (eds) (2006) Spatial dynamics, networks and modelling. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham

    Google Scholar 

  37. Reggiani A, Vinciguerra S (2007) Network connectivity models: an overview and empirical applications. In: Friesz T (ed) Network science, nonlinear science and infrastructure systems.Springer, New York

    Google Scholar 

  38. Reynolds-Feighan AJ (1994) EC and US air freight markets: network organisation in a deregulated environment. Transp Rev 14:193–217

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  39. Reynolds-Feighan AJ (1998) The impact of US airline deregulation on airport traffic patterns.Geogr Anal 30:234–253

    Google Scholar 

  40. Reynolds-Feighan AJ (2001) Traffic distribution in low-cost and full service carrier network in the US air transport market. J Air Transp Manag 7:265–275

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  41. Rietveld P, Brons M (2001) Quality of hub-and-spoke networks; the effects of timetable coordination on waiting time and rescheduling time. J Air Transp Manag 7:241–249

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  42. Schintler LA, Gorman SP, Reggiani A, Patuelli R, Nijkamp P (2005a) Small-world phenomena in communication networks: a cross-Atlantic comparison. In: Reggiani A, Schintler LA (eds) Methods and models in transport and telecommunications: cross atlantic perspectives.Springer, Berlin

    Google Scholar 

  43. Schintler LA, Gorman SP, Reggiani A, Patuelli R, Gillespie A, Nijkamp P, Rutherford (2005b)J Complex network phenomena in telecommunication systems. Netw Spat Econ 5:351–370

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

  44. Toh RS, Higgins RG (1985) The impact of hub-and-spoke network centralization and route monopoly on domestic airline profitability. Transp J 24:16–27

    Google Scholar 

  45. Veldhuis J, Kroes E (2002) Dynamics in relative network performance of the main European hub airports. In: European Transport Conference, Cambridge

    Google Scholar 

  46. Waters N (2006) Network and nodal indices. Measures of complexity and redundancy: a review. In: Reggiani A, Nijkamp P (eds) Spatial dynamics, networks and modelling. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham

    Google Scholar 

  47. Watts DJ, Strogatz SH (1998) Collective dynamics of small world networks. Nature 393:440–442

    CrossRef  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding authors

Correspondence to Aura Reggiani , Sara Signoretti , Peter Nijkamp or Alessandro Cento .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

Copyright information

© 2009 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

About this chapter

Cite this chapter

Reggiani, A., Signoretti, S., Nijkamp, P., Cento, A. (2009). Network Measures in Civil Air Transport: A Case Study of Lufthansa. In: Naimzada, A.K., Stefani, S., Torriero, A. (eds) Networks, Topology and Dynamics. Lecture Notes in Economics and Mathematical Systems, vol 613. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-68409-1_14

Download citation