Advertisement

Parathyroid Carcinoma

  • Janice L. Pasieka
  • Moosa Khalil
Chapter

26.11 Summary

Although parathyroid carcinoma is a rare disease, every surgeon who treats HPTH must have a comprehensive understanding of the clinical presentation, operative findings, and the pathological pitfalls of this disease. Surgical en bloc resection remains the treatment of choice and provides the only means of cure. The addition of external beam radiation therapy may provide better locoregional control in selected patients. Recent advances have increased our understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of this disease. It would appear that the HRPT2 gene plays an important role in the development of carcinoma, and provides a genetic marker for those patients at risk. Unlike other malignancies, parathyroid carcinoma rarely causes death by tumor spread; instead, death is usually a result of the complications arising from excessive PTH secretion. Therefore, palliative therapies directed at reducing the hypercalcemia and PTH secretion have been shown to benefit the patient suffering from this disease.

Keywords

Thyroid Carcinoma Parathyroid Adenoma Parathyroid Carcinoma National Cancer Data Base Parathyroid Tumor 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    de Quervain F (1904) Parastruma maligna aberrata. Dtsch Z Chir 100:334–352Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Sainton P, Millot J (1933) Malegne d’un adenome parathyroidiene eosinophile. Au cours d’une de Recklinghausen. Ann Anat Pathol 10:813–814Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Shane E (2001) Clinical review 122: parathyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 86:485–493PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Wynne AG, van Heerden J, Carney JA, Fitzpatrick LA (1992) Parathyroid carcinoma: clinical and pathologic features in 43 patients. Medicine 71:197–205PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Obara T, Fujimoto Y (1991) Diagnosis and treatment of patients with parathyroid carcinoma: an update and review. World J Surg 15:738–744PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wang CA, Gaz RD (1985) Natural history of parathyroid carcinoma. Diagnosis, treatment, and results. Am J Surg 149:522–527PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Cohn K, Silverman M, Corrado J, Sedgewick C (1985) Parathyroid carcinoma: the Lahey Clinic experience. Surgery 98:1095–1100PubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hakaim AG, Esselstyn CB (1993) Parathyroid carcinoma: 50-year experience at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation. Cleve Clin J Med 60:331–335PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fujimota Y, Obara T (1987) How to recognize and treat parathyroid carcinoma. Surg Clin North Am 67:343–357Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Beus KS, Stack BC Jr (2004) Parathyroid carcinoma. Otolaryngol Clin North Am 37:845–854PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Shane E (1994) Parathyroid carcinoma. Curr Ther Endocrinol Metab 5:565–568Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Salusky IB, Goodman WG, Kuizon BD (2000) Implications of intermittent calcitriol therapy on growth and secondary hyperparathyroidism. Pediatr Nephrol 14:641–645PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Sandelin K, Auer G, Bondeson L, Grimelius L, Farnebo L-O (1992) Prognostic factors in parathyroid cancer: a review of 95 cases. World J Surg 16:724–731PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Miki H, Sumitomo M, Inoue H, Kita S, Monden Y (1996) Parathyroid carcinoma in patients with chronic renal failure on maintenance hemodialysis. Surgery 120:897–901PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Streeten EA, Weinstein LS, Norton JA, Mulvihill JJ, White BJ, Friedman E, Jaffe G, Brandi ML, Stewart K, Zimering MB (1992) Studies in a kindred with parathyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 75:362–366PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cordeiro AC, Montenegro FL, Kulcsar MA, Dellanegra LA, Tavares MR, Michaluart P Jr, Ferraz AR (1998) Parathyroid carcinoma. Am J Surg 175:52–55PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chow E, Tsang RW, Brierley JD, Filice S (1998) Parathyroid carcinoma: the Princess Margaret Hospital experience. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 41:569–572PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mashburn MA, Chonkich GD, Chase DR, Petti GH Jr (1987) Parathyroid carcinoma. Two new cases: diagnosis, therapy, and treatment. Laryngoscope 97:215–218PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    de Papp AE, Kinder B, LiVolsi V, Gupta SM, Stewart AF (1994) Parathyroid carcinoma arising from parathyroid hyperplasia: autoinfarction following intravenous treatment with pamidronate. Am J Med 97:399–400PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Favia G, Lumachi F, Polistina F, D’Amico DF (1998) Parathyroid carcinoma: sixteen new cases and suggestions for correct management. World J Surg 22:1225–1230PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Hauptman JB, Modlinger RS, Ertel NH (1983) Pheochromocytoma resistant to alpha adrenergic blockade. Arch Intern Med 143:2321–2323PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Kebebew E, Arici C, Duh QY, Clark OH (2001) Localization and reoperation results for persistent and recurrent parathyroid carcinoma. Arch Surg 136:878–885PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Dionisi S, Minisola S, Pepe J, De Geronimo S, Paglia F, Memeo L, Fitzpatrick LA (2002) Concurrent parathyroid adenomas and carcinoma in the setting of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1: presentation as hypercalcemic crisis. Mayo Clin Proc 77:866–869PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Schmidt JL, Perry RC, Philippsen LP, Wu HH (2002) Intrathyroidal parathyroid carcinoma presenting with only hypercalcemia. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 127:352–353PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Chandran M, Deftos L, Stuenkel C, Haghihi P, Orloff L (2003) Thymic parathyroid carcinoma and postoperative hungry bone syndrome. Am Surg 9:152–156Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Aldinger KA, Hickey RC, Ibanez ML, Samaan NA (1982) Parathyroid carcinoma: a clinical study of seven cases of functioning and two cases of nonfunctioning parathyroid cancer. Cancer 49:388–397PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Snell SB, Gaar EE, Stevens SP, Flynn MB (2003) Parathyroid cancer, a continued diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma: report of four cases and review of the literature. Am Surg 69:711–716PubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Iacobone M, Lumachi F, Favia G (2004) Up-to-date on parathyroid carcinoma: analysis of an experience of 19 cases. J Surg Oncol 88:223–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Morrison C, Farrar W, Kneile J, Williams N, Liu-Stratton Y, Bakaletz A, Aldred MA, Eng C (2004) Molecular classification of parathyroid neoplasia by gene expression profiling. Am J Pathol 165:565–576PubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Szabo J, Heath B, Hill VM, Jackson CE, Zarbo RJ, Mallette LE, Chew SL, Besser GM, Thakker RV, Huff V (1995) Hereditary hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome: the endocrine tumor gene HRPT2 maps to chromosome 1q21-q31. Am J Hum Genet 56:944–950PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Howell VM, Haven CJ, Kahnoski K, Khoo SK, Petillo D, Chen J, Fleuren GJ, Robinson BG, Delbridge LW, Philips J, Nelson AE, Krause U, Hammje K, Dralle H, Hoang-Vu C, Gimm O, Marsh DJ, Morreau H, Teh BT (2003) HRPT2 mutations are associated with malignancy in sporadic parathyroid tumours. J Med Genet 40:657–663PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Shattuck TM, Valimaki S, Obara T, Gaz RD, Clark OH, Shoback D, Wierman ME, Tojo K, Robbins CM, Carpten JD, Farnebo LO, Larsson C, Arnold A (2003) Somatic and germ-line mutations of the HRPT2 gene in sporadic parathyroid carcinoma. N Engl J Med 349:1722–1729PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hundahl SA, Fleming ID, Fremgen AM, Menck HR (1999) Two hundred eighty-six cases of parathyroid carcinoma treated in the U.S. between 1985–1995: a National Cancer Data Base Report. The American College of Surgeons Commission on Cancer and the American Cancer Society. Cancer 86:538–544PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Carpten JD, Robbins CM, Villablanca A, Forsberg L, Presciuttini S, Bailey-Wilson J, Simonds WF, Gillanders EM, Kennedy AM, Chen JD, Agarwal SK, Sood R, Jones MP, Moses TY, Haven C, Petillo D, Leotlela PD, Harding B, Cameron D, Pannett AA, Hoog A, Heath H III, James-Newton LA, Robinson B, Zarbo RJ, Cavaco BM, Wassif W, Perrier ND, Rosen IB, Kristoffersson U, Turnpenny PD, Farnebo LO, Besser GM, Jackson CE, Morreau H, Trent JM, Thakker RV, Marx SJ, Teh BT, Larsson C, Hobbs MR (2002) HRPT2, encoding parafibromin, is mutated in hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome. Nat Genet 32:676–680PubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ishida T, Yokoe T, Izuo M (1991) Nationwide survey of parathyroid operations in Japan 1980–1989. Endocr Surg 8:37–45Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ireland JP, Fleming SJ, Levison DA, Cattell WR, Baker LR (1985) Parathyroid carcinoma associated with chronic renal failure and previous radiotherapy to the neck. J Clin Pathol 38:1114–1118PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Smith JF (1993) The pathological diagnosis of carcinoma of the parathyroid. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 38:662Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Christmas TJ, Chapple CR, Noble JG, Milroy EJ, Cowie AG (1988) Hyperparathyroidism after neck irradiation. Br J Surg 75:873–874PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Tisell LE, Hansson G, Lindberg S, Ragnhult I (1977) Hyperparathyroidism in persons treated with X-rays for tuberculous cervical adenitis. Cancer 40:846–854PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Goldman L, Smyth FS (1936) Hyperparathyroidism in siblings. Ann Surg 104:971–981Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Huang S-M, Duh Q-Y, Shaver J, Siperstein AE, Kraimps J-L, Clark OH (1997) Familial hyperparathyroidism without multiple endocrine neoplasia. World J Surg 21:22–29PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Barry MK, van Heerden JA, Grant CS, Thompson GB, Khosla S (1997) Is familial hyperparathyroidism a unique disease. Surgery 122:1028–1033PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Wassif WS, Moniz CF, Friedman E, Wong S, Weber G, Nordenskjold M, Peters TJ, Larsson C (1993) Familial isolated hyperparathyroidism: a distinct genetic entity with an increased risk of parathyroid cancer. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 77:1485–1489PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Jackson CE, Norum RA, Boyd SB, Talpos GB, Wilson SD, Taggart T, Mallette LE (1990) Hereditary hyperparathyroidism and multiple ossifying jaw fibromas: A clinically and genetically distinct syndrome. Surg 108:1006–1013Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Haven CJ, Wong FK, van Dam EW, van der J R, van Asperen C, Jansen J, Rosenberg C, de Wit M, Roijers J, Hoppener J, Lips CJ, Larsson C, Teh BT, Morreau H (2000) A genotypic and histopathological study of a large Dutch kindred with hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 85:1449–1454PubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Cavaco BM, Guerra L, Bradley KJ, Carvalho D, Harding B, Oliveira A, Santos MA, Sobrinho LG, Thakker RV, Leite V (2004) Hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumor syndrome in Roma families from Portugal is due to a founder mutation of the HRPT2 gene. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:1747–1752PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Teh BT, Farnebo F, Kristoffersson U, Sundelin B, Cardinal J, Axelson R, Yap A, Epstein M, Heath H III, Cameron D, Larsson C (1996) Autosomal dominant primary hyperparathyroidism and jaw tumor syndrome associated with renal hamartomas and cystic kidney disease: linkage to 1q21-q32 and loss of the wild type allele in renal hamartomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 81:4204–4211PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Cavaco BM, Barros L, Pannett AA, Ruas L, Carvalheiro M, Ruas MM, Krausz T, Santos MA, Sobrinho LG, Leite V, Thakker RV (2001) The hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome in a Portuguese kindred. QJM 94:213–222PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Wassif WS, Farnebo F, Teh BT, Moniz CF, Li FY, Harrison JD, Peters TJ, Larsson C, Harris P (1999) Genetic studies of a family with hereditary hyperparathyroidism-jaw tumour syndrome. Clin Endocrinol 50:191–196Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Haven CJ, Howell VM, Eilers PH, Dunne R, Takahashi M, van Puijenbroek M, Furge K, Kievit J, Tan MH, Fleuren GJ, Robinson BG, Delbridge LW, Philips J, Nelson AE, Krause U, Dralle H, Hoang-Vu C, Gimm O, Morreau H, Marsh DJ, Teh BT (2004) Gene expression of parathyroid tumors: molecular subclassification and identification of the potential malignant phenotype. Cancer Res 64:7405–7411PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Weinstein LS, Simonds WF (2003) HRPT2, a marker of parathyroid cancer. N Engl J Med 349:1691–1692PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Farnebo F, Teh BT, Dotzenrath C, Wassif WS, Svensson A, White I, Betz R, Goretzki P, Sandelin K, Farnebo LO, Larsson C (1997) Differential loss of heterozygosity in familial, sporadic, and uremic hyperparathyroidism. Hum Genet 99:342–349PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Farnebo F, Teh BT, Kytola S, Svensson A, Phelan C, Sandelin K, Thompson NW, Hoog A, Weber G, Farnebo LO, Larsson C (1998) Alterations of the MEN1 gene in sporadic parathyroid tumors. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83:2627–2630PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Dwight T, Twigg S, Delbridge L, Wong FK, Farnebo F, Richardson AL, Nelson A, Zedenius J, Philips J, Larsson C, Teh BT, Robinson B (2000) Loss of heterozygosity in sporadic parathyroid tumours: involvement of chromosome 1 and the MEN1 gene locus in 11q13. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 53:85–92Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Mallya SM, Arnold A (2000) Cyclin D1 in parathyroid disease. Front Biosci 5:D367–D371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Hemmer S, Wasenius VM, Haglund C, Zhu Y, Knuutila S, Franssila K, Joensuu H (2001) Deletion of 11q23 and cyclin D1 overexpression are frequent aberrations in parathyroid adenomas. Am J Pathol 158:1355–1362PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Vasef MA, Brynes RK, Sturm M, Bromley C, Robinson RA (1999) Expression of cyclin D1 in parathyroid carcinomas, adenomas, and hyperplasias: a paraffin immunohistochemical study. Mod Pathol 12:412–416PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Hsi ED, Zukerberg LR, Yang WI, Arnold A (1996) Cyclin D1/PRAD1 expression in parathyroid adenomas: an immunohistochemical study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 81:1736–1739PubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Shattuck TM, Kim TS, Costa J, Yandell DW, Imanishi Y, Palanisamy N, Gaz RD, Shoback D, Clark OH, Monchik JM, Wierman ME, Hollenberg A, Tojo K, Chaganti RS, Arnold A (2003) Mutational analyses of RB and BRCA2 as candidate tumour suppressor genes in parathyroid carcinoma. Clin Endocrinol 59:180–189Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Pearce SH, Trump D, Wooding C, Sheppard MN, Clayton RN, Thakker RV (1996) Loss of heterozygosity studies at the retinoblastoma and breast cancer susceptibility (BRCA2) loci in pituitary, parathyroid, pancreatic and carcinoid tumours. Clin Endocrinol 45:195–200Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Cryns VL, Thor A, Xu HJ, Hu SX, Wierman ME, Vickery AL Jr, Benedict WF, Arnold A (1994) Loss of the retinoblastoma tumor-suppressor gene in parathyroid carcinoma. N Engl J Med 330:757–761PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Venkitaraman AR (2001) Chromosome stability, DNA recombination and the BRCA2 tumour suppressor. Curr Opin Cell Biol 13:338–343PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Mittendorf E, McHenry CR (2005) Parathyroid carcinoma. J Surg Oncol 89:137–142Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Pasieka JL (1999) Parathyroid carcinoma. Operative Tech Gen Surg 1:71–84Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Koea JB, Shaw JH (1999) Parathyroid cancer: biology and management. Surg Oncol 8:155–165PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Silverberg SJ, Bilezikian JP (1997) Primary hyperparathyroidism: still evolving? J Bone Miner Res 12:856–862PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Silverberg SJ, Bilezikian JP (1996) Evaluation and management of primary hyperparathyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 81:2036–2040PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Heath H III, Hodgson SF, Kennedy MA (1980) Primary hyperparathyroidism. Incidence, morbidity, and potential economic impact in a community. N Engl J Med 302:189–193PubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Klink BK, Karulf RE, Maimon WN, Peoples JB (1991) Nonfunctioning parathyroid carcinoma. Am Surg 57:463–467PubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Murphy MN, Glennon PG, Diocee MS, Wick MR, Cavers DJ (1986) Nonsecretory parathyroid carcinoma of the mediastinum. Light microscopic, immunocytochemical, and ultrastructural features of a case, and review of the literature. Cancer 58:2468–2476PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Palazzo F, Delbridge LW (2004) Minimal-access/minimally invasive parathyroidectomy for primary hyperparathyroidism. Surg Clin of North Am 84:717–734Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Edmonson GR, Charboneau JW, James EM, Reading CC, Grant CS (1986) Parathyroid carcinoma: high-frequency sonographic features. Radiology 161:65–67PubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Kinoshita Y, Fukase M, Uchihashi M, Takenaka M, Hishikawa R, Nakada M, Nonaka H, Kondo T, Fujita T (1985) Significance of preoperative use of ultrasonography in parathyroid neoplasms: comparison of sonographic textures with histologic findings. J Clin Ultrasound 13:457–460PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Johnston LB, Carroll MJ, Britton KE, Lowe DG, Shand W, Besser GM, Grossman AB (1996) The accuracy of parathyroid gland localization in primary hyperparathyroidism using sestamibi radionuclide imaging. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 81:346–352PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Thompson SD, Prichard AJ (2004) The management of parathyroid carcinoma. Curr Opin Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 12:93–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Spinelli C, Bonadio AG, Berti P, Materazzi G, Miccoli P (2000) Cutaneous spreading of parathyroid carcinoma after fine needle aspiration cytology. J Endocrinol Invest 23:255–257PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Clayman GL, Gonzalez HE, El Naggar A, Vassilopoulou-Sellin R (2004) Parathyroid carcinoma: evaluation and interdisciplinary management. Cancer 100:900–905PubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Vetto JT, Brennan MF, Woodruf J, Burt M (1993) Parathyroid carcinoma: diagnosis and clinical history. Surgery 114:882–892PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Munson ND, Foote RL, Northcutt RC, Tiegs RD, Fitzpatrick LA, Grant CS, van Heerden JA, Thompson GB, Lloyd RV (2003) Parathyroid carcinoma: is there a role for adjuvant radiation therapy? Cancer 98:2378–2384PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Anderson BJ, Samaan NA, Vassilopoulou-Sellin R, Ordonez NG, Hickey RC (1983) Parathyroid carcinoma: features and difficulties in diagnosis and management. Surgery 94:906–915PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Grammes CF, Eyerly RC (1980) Hyperparathyroidism and parathyroid carcinoma. South Med J 73:814–816PubMedGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Schantz A, Castleman B (1973) Parathyroid carcinoma. A study of 70 cases. Cancer 31:600–605PubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Sandelin K, Tullgren O, Farnebo LO (1994) Clinical course of metastatic parathyroid cancer. World J Surg 18:594–598PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Stojadinovic A, Hoos A, Nissan A, Dudas ME, Cordon-Cardo C, Shaha AR, Brennan MF, Singh B, Ghossein RA (2003) Parathyroid neoplasms: clinical, histopathological, and tissue microarray-based molecular analysis. Hum Pathol 34:54–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    DeLellis RA (1995) Does the evaluation of proliferative activity predict malignancy of prognosis in endocrine tumors? Hum Pathol 26:131–134PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Bondeson L, Sandelin K, Grimelius L (1993) Histopathological variables and DNA cytometry in parathyroid carcinoma. Am J Surg Pathol 17:820–829PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Busaidy NL, Jimenez C, Habra MA, Schultz PN, El Naggar AK, Clayman GL, Asper JA, Diaz EM Jr, Evans DB, Gagel RF, Garden A, Hoff AO, Lee JE, Morrison WH, Rosenthal DI, Sherman SI, Sturgis EM, Waguespack SG, Weber RS, Wirfel K, Vassilopoulou-Sellin R (2004) Parathyroid carcinoma: a 22-year experience. Head Neck 26:716–726PubMedGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Faccini JM (1970) The ultrastructure of parathyroid glands removed from patients with primary hyperparathyroidism: a report of 40 cases, including four carcinomata. J Pathol 102:189–199PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Levin KE, Chew KL, Ljung B, Mayall BH, Siperstein AE, Clark OH (1988) Deoxyribonucleic acid cytometry helps identify parathyroid carcinomas. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 67:779–784PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Mallette LE (1992) DNA quantitation in the study of parathyroid lesions. Am J Clin Pathol 98:305–311PubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Harlow S, Roth SI, Bauer K, Marshall RB (1991) Flow cytometric DNA analysis of normal and pathologic parathyroid glands. Mod Pathol 4:310–315PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Abbona GC, Papotti M, Gasparri G, Bussolati G (1995) Proliferative activity in parathyroid tumors as detected by Ki-67 immunostaining. Hum Pathol 26:135–138PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Farnebo F, Auer G, Farnebo LO, Teh BT, Twigg S, Aspenblad U, Thompson NW, Grimelius L, Larsson C, Sandelin K (1999) Evaluation of retinoblastoma and Ki-67 immunostaining as diagnostic markers of benign and malignant parathyroid disease. World J Surg 23:68–74PubMedGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Tan MH, Morrison C, Wang P, Yang X, Haven CJ, Zhang C, Zhao P, Tretiakova MS, Korpi-Hyovalti E, Burgess JR, Soo KC, Cheah WK, Cao B, Resau J, Morreau H, Teh BT (2004) Loss of parafibromin immunoreactivity is a distinguishing feature of parathyroid carcinoma. Clin Cancer Res 10:6629–6637PubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Bilezikian JP (1992) Management of acute hypercalcemia. N Engl J Med 326:1196–1203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Sandelin K, Thompson NW, Bondeson L (1991) Metastatic parathyroid carcinoma: dilemmas in management. Surgery 110:978–988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Hurtado J, Esbrit P (2002) Treatment of malignant hypercalcaemia. Expert Opin Pharmacother 3:521–527PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Collins MT, Skarulis MC, Bilezikian JP, Silverberg SJ, Spiegel AM, Marx SJ (1998) Treatment of hypercalcemia secondary to parathyroid carcinoma with a novel calcimimetic agent. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 83:1083–1088PubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Nemeth EF, Steffey ME, Hammerland LG, Hung BC, Van Wagenen BC, DelMar EG, Balandrin MF (1998) Calcimimetics with potent and selective activity on the parathyroid calcium receptor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 95:4040–4045PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Shoback DM, Bilezikian JP, Turner SA, McCary LC, Guo MD, Peacock M (2003) The calcimimetic cinacalcet normalizes serum calcium in subjects with primary hyperparathyroidism. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 88:5644–5649PubMedGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Betea D, Bradwell AR, Harvey TC, Mead GP, Schmidt-Gayk H, Ghaye B, Daly AF, Beckers A (2004) Hormonal and biochemical normalization and tumor shrinkage induced by anti-parathyroid hormone immunotherapy in a patient with metastatic parathyroid carcinoma. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 89:3413–3420PubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Koyano H, Shishiba Y, Shimizu T, Suzuki N, Nakazawa H, Tachibana S, Murata H, Furui S (1994) Successful treatment by surgical removal of bone metastasis producing PTH: new approach to the management of metastatic parathyroid carcinoma. Intern Med 33:697–702PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Pasieka JL, McEwan A, Rorstad O (2004) The palliative role of 131I mIBG and 111In-octreotide in patients with metastatic progressive neuroendocrine tumors. Surgery 136:1218–1226PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Janice L. Pasieka
    • 1
  • Moosa Khalil
    • 2
  1. 1.Division of General Surgery, Department of Surgery, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada
  2. 2.Pathologist, Calgary Laboratory ServicesUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada

Personalised recommendations