Advertisement

Embryology and Surgical Anatomy of the Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands

  • William B. Stewart
  • Lawrence J. Rizzolo
Chapter

Keywords

Parathyroid Gland Recurrent Laryngeal Nerve Laryngeal Nerve Carotid Sheath Inferior Thyroid Artery 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Abboud B, Aouad R (2004) Non-recurrent inferior laryngeal nerve in thyroid surgery: report of three cases and review of the literature. J Laryngol Otol 118:139–142PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bellantone R, Boscherini M, et al (2001) Is the identification of the external branch of the superior laryngeal nerve mandatory in thyroid operation? Results of a prospective randomized study. Surgery 130:1055–1059PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Droulias C, Tzinas S, et al (1976) The superior laryngeal nerve. Am Surg 42:635–638PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Dyson MD (1995) Endocrine system. In: Williams PL (ed) Gray’s anatomy. Churchill Livingstone, New York, pp 1881–1906Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ghanem N, Bley T, et al (2003) Ectopic thyroid gland in the porta hepatis and lingua. Thyroid 13:503–507PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Haber RS, Kim CK, et al (2002) Ultrasonography for preoperative localization of enlarged parathyroid glands in primary hyperparathyroidism: comparison with (99m)technetium sestamibi scintigraphy. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf) 57:241–249CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kuriloff DB, Sanborn KV (2004) Rapid intraoperative localization of parathyroid glands utilizing methylene blue infusion. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 131:616–622PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Larsen WJ (2001) Human embryology. Churchill Livingstone, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Livolsi VA (1990) Surgical pathology of the thyroid. Saunders, PhiladelphiaGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Mirilas P, Skandalakis JE (2002) Benign anatomical mistakes: the correct anatomical term for the recurrent laryngeal nerve. Am Surg 68:95–97PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Page C, Foulon P, et al (2003) The inferior laryngeal nerve: surgical and anatomic considerations. Report of 251 thyroidectomies. Surg Radiol Anat 25:188–191PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Shaheen OH (2003) Thyroid surgery. Parthenon Publishing, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Shen W, Duren M, et al (1996) Reoperation for persistent or recurrent primary hyperparathyroidism. Arch Surg 131:861–867; discussion 867–869PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sherman JH, Colborn GL (2003) Absence of the left inferior thyroid artery: clinical implications. Clin Anat 16:534–537PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Skandalakis JE, Carlson GW, et al (2004) Neck. In: Skandalakis JE (ed) Surgical anatomy, vol 1. Paschalidis Medical, Athens, pp 3–116Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Sturniolo G, D’Alia C, et al (1999) The recurrent laryngeal nerve related to thyroid surgery. Am J Surg 177:485–488PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Toni R, Della Casa C, et al (2003) Anthropological variations in the anatomy of the human thyroid arteries. Thyroid 13:183–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Udelsman R, Donovan PI (2004) Open minimally invasive parathyroid surgery. World J Surg 28:1224–1226PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • William B. Stewart
    • 1
  • Lawrence J. Rizzolo
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of SurgeryYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA
  2. 2.Section of Anatomy, Department of SurgeryYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA

Personalised recommendations