Physiology and Pathophysiology of the Parathyroid Glands and Preoperative Evaluation

  • Elizabeth H. Holt
  • Silvio E. Inzucchi

19.4 Summary

Calcium homeostasis is of critical importance to living organisms. In man, a complex hormonal system exists to finely regulate the extracellular calcium concentration. A common aberration of this system is primary hyperparathyroidism, the leading cause of chronic hypercalcemia. While usually presenting with few symptoms, this disease is a frequent explanation for osteoporosis and nephrolithiasis. If undiagnosed, it may progress with severe sequelae. It is therefore useful for the surgeon to have a general understanding of the regulation of calcium metabolism as well as the clinical features, diagnostic strategies, and the accepted surgical indications for this common endocrine condition.


Serum Calcium Parathyroid Gland Primary Hyperparathyroidism Parathyroid Adenoma Parathyroid Carcinoma 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elizabeth H. Holt
    • 1
  • Silvio E. Inzucchi
    • 1
  1. 1.Section of EndocrinologyYale University School of MedicineNew HavenUSA

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