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Physicochemical Properties and Biological Response of Titanium Surface Modified by Anodic Spark Deposition for Dental Implants

  • Lertrit Sarinnaphakorn
  • P. Mesquida
  • C. Giordano
  • E. Sandrini
  • R. Chiesa
  • A. Cigada
  • M. Fenlon
  • L. Di Silvio
Conference paper
Part of the IFMBE Proceedings book series (IFMBE, volume 15)

Abstract

Surface modifications play a significant role in the interaction and success of implants to adjacent tissues. This study evaluated the surface topography and in vitro cellular response of surface treatments on titanium performed by multiphase anodic spark deposition (ASD). The titanium surfaces examined were: BioSpark (BS) and OsseoSpark (OS), obtained by ASD method; BioRough™ (BR), a chemical etching treatment used for comparison; and commercially-pure grade-2 titanium (cpTi) used as a control. The samples were cut in discs (12 mm diameter; 0.5 mm thickness) and sterilised by λ-irradiation prior to use. All samples were imaged using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) (Hitachi S-3500N, Hitachi High-Technologies) to characterise the surface in 2 dimensions. Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) (Topometrix Explorer SPM, Veeco Metrology LLC, CA, USA) was performed in contact mode to investigate topography in 3 dimensions and qualitatively analyse the surface roughness. Physicochemical analysis was also performed using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) (Oxford Instruments Microanalysis, UK). A human osteosarcoma cell line (HOS TE85) was used for in vitro analysis; MTT assay to determine cell metabolic activity and Alamar Blue™ (Serotec) for assessing cell proliferation. SEM images indicated that ASD treatment created a microrough surface with a web-like nanostructure. AFM images illustrated the 3-dimensional topographies and quantitatively analysed surface roughness by ranging from the roughest to the smoothest which were Br > OS > BS > cpTi, respectively. Cellular response results showed no toxic leachables released from the test samples, thus indicating all sample were biocompatible. A good level of cell proliferation compared to the control was observed indicating a favourable attachment surface. This study has indicated that the ASD treatment surface has a nanostructure topography favouring cell attachment and proliferation and can potentially be used to improve titanium performance by enhancing osseointegration for use in dental implantology.

Keywords

surface modification surface roughness titanium implant osseointegration anodic spark deposition 

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References

  1. 1.
    Giordano C et al (2005) Physiological and biological characterisation of a novel multiphase anodic spark deposition coating to enhance implant osseointegration. J Mater Sci Mater Med. Dec; 16(12):1221–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Giordano C et al (2004) Titanium for osseointegration: comparison between a novel biomimetic treatment and commercially exploited surfaces. Journal of Applied Biomaterials and Biomechanics. 2: 35–44PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Sandrini E et al (2005) In vitro assessment of the osseointegrative potential of a novel multiphase anodic spark deposition coating for orthopaedic and dental implants. J Biomed Mater Res partB: Appl Biomater 73B:392–399CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lertrit Sarinnaphakorn
    • 2
    • 1
  • P. Mesquida
    • 3
  • C. Giordano
    • 4
  • E. Sandrini
    • 4
  • R. Chiesa
    • 4
  • A. Cigada
    • 4
  • M. Fenlon
    • 2
  • L. Di Silvio
    • 2
  1. 1.Biomaterials and BiomimeticsKing’s College London Dental InstituteLondonUK
  2. 2.Biomaterials and BiomimeticsKing’s College London Dental InstituteLondonUK
  3. 3.Material Group, Department of Mechanical EngineeringKing’s College LondonLondonUK
  4. 4.Department of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical EngineeringGiulio Natta, Politecnico di MilanMilanItaly

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