A New Robot for High Dexterity Microsurgery

  • Paul S. Schenker
  • Hari Das
  • Timothy R. Ohm
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 905)


We report the development of a new six degree-of-freedom (d.o.f.) manipulator. This robot and its task-space controls enable relative tip positioning to better than 25 microns over a singularity-free work volume exceeding 20 cubic centimeters. By virtue of an innovative cable drive design, the robot has zero backlash in five joints and can sustain full extent loads of over three pounds. The robot is applicable to both fine motion manipulation of microsurgical tools and also dexterous handling of larger powered devices for minimally invasive surgery. Our current development emphasis is a teleoperated system for dexterity-enhanced microsurgeries; we believe the new robot will also have useful applications in computer assisted surgeries, e.g. image-guided therapies. In this brief paper, we outline the robot mechanical design, controls implementation, and preliminary evaluations. Our accompanying oral presentation includes a five minute videotape that illustrates engineering laboratory results achieved to date.


Virtual Reality Fault Detection Joint Position Robot Design Robot Slave 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Report on NSF Workshop on Computer Assisted Surgery, February 28-March 2, 1993, Washington, D.C. (Orgs., R. H. Taylor and G.A. Bekey).Google Scholar
  2. Proc. Medicine Meets Virtual Reality III, January 19–22, 1995, at San Diego, California, sponsored by the Univ. Calif. San Diego (Publisher: Aligned Management Consultants, San Diego, CA.). Proc. First Intl. Symp.Google Scholar
  3. Medical Robotics and Computer Assisted Surgery (MRCAS’94), September 2224, Pittsburgh, PA (Eds., A.M. DiGioia, I II, T. Kanade, and R. Taylor );Google Scholar
  4. NCI-NASA-SCVIR Workshop on Technology Transfer in Image Guided Therapy, August 5, 1994, San Francisco, CA (Chr., H. Y. Kressel).Google Scholar
  5. Virtual Reality: Scientific and Technological Challenges, a report of the Committee on Virtual Reality Research and Development (Chr., N. Durlach), National Research Council, NAS Press (1994), Washington D.C.Google Scholar
  6. 2.
    S. Schenker, A. K. Bejczy, W. S. Kim, and S. Lee, “Advanced man-machine interfaces and control architecture for dexterous teleoperations,” in Proc. Oceans ‘81, pp. 1500–1525, Honolulu, HI, October, 1991, and references therein.Google Scholar
  7. H. Das, H. Zak, W. S. Kim, A. K. Bejczy, and P. S. Schenker, “Operator performance with alternative manual modes of control,” Presence, Vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 201–218, Spring 1992;Google Scholar
  8. H. Das, P.S. Schenker, H. Zak, and A. K. Bejczy, “Teleoperated satellite repair experiments,” in Proc. 1992 IEEE-RSJ Intl. Conf. IROS, Raleigh, NC, July.Google Scholar
  9. P. S. Schenker and W. S. Kim, “Remote robotic operations and graphics-based operator interfaces,” in Proc. 5th Intl. Symp. on Robotics and Manufacturing (ISRAM’94), Maui, HI, August 14–17, 1994, and references therein.Google Scholar
  10. P. S. Schenker, W. S. Kim, and A. K. Bejczy, “Remote robotic operations at 3000 miles - dexterous teleoperation with time-delay via calibrated virtual reality task display,” in Proc. Medicine Meets Virtual Reality II, San Diego, CA, January, 1994.Google Scholar
  11. P. S. Schenker, S. F. Peters, E. D. Paljug, and W. S. Kim, “Intelligent viewing control for robotic and automation systems,” in Sensor Fusion VII, in Proc. SPIE 2355, Boston, MA, October, 1994.Google Scholar
  12. 3.
    Hunter, T. Doukoglou, S. Lafontaine, P. Charette, L. Jones, M. Sager, G. Mallinson, P. Hunter, “A teleoperated microsurgical robot and associated virtual environment for eye surgery,” Presence, Vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 265–280, fall, 1993.Google Scholar
  13. 4.
    Salcudean and J. Yan, `Towards a force-reflecting, motion-scaling system for microsurgery,“ in Proc. 1994 IEEE Intl. Conf. Robotics and Automation, May, San Diego, CA;Google Scholar
  14. S. Salcudean, N.M. Wong, and R.L. Hollis, “A force-reflecting teleoperation system with magnetically levitated master and wrist,” in Proc. 1992 IEEE Intl. Conf. Robotics and Automation, Nice, France, May.Google Scholar
  15. K. W. Grace, J. E. Colgate, M. R. Glucksberg, and J. H. Chun, “A six degree-of-freedom manipulator for ophthalmic surgery,” in Proc. 1993 IEEE Intl. Conf. Robotics and Automation, Atlanta, GA, May.Google Scholar
  16. J. W. Hill, P. S. Green, J. F. Jensen, Y. Gorfu, and Ajit S. Shah, “Telepresence surgery demonstration system,” in Proc. 1994 IEEE Intl. Conf. Robotics and Automation, San Diego, CA, MayGoogle Scholar
  17. 5.
    Rodriguez, “Kalman filtering, smoothing and recursive robot arm forward and inverse dynamics,” Journal of Robotics and Automation, Vol. 3, No. 6, pp. 624–639, 1987CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. G. Rodriguez, K. Kreutz, and A. Jain, “A spatial operator algebra for manipulator modeling and control, International Journal of Robotics Research, Vol. 10, No. 4, pp. 371–381, 1991.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 6.
    Robot Assisted Microsurgery project accomplishments for FY94 - demonstration of robot joint motion, Cartesian control, and precise tip control,“ Production AVC-94–228 (VHS Videotape), September 1, 1994, Audiovisual Services Office, Jet Propulsion Laboratory: E. Barlow, C. Boswell, H. Das, S. Lee, T. Ohm, E. Paljug, G. Rodriguez, and P. Schenker(PI), for NASA Headquarters.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul S. Schenker
    • 1
  • Hari Das
    • 1
  • Timothy R. Ohm
    • 1
  1. 1.Jet Propulsion LaboratoryCalifornia Institute of TechnologyPasadenaUSA

Personalised recommendations