Advertisement

Significance and Assessment of the Biological Stability of Drinking Water

Chapter
Part of the The Handbook of Environmental Chemistry book series (HEC, volume 5 / 5B)

Abstract

Biologically-stable drinking water does not support the multiplication of micro-organisms in drinking water distribution systems. Such multiplication (regrowth) adversely affects water quality, e.g. by the presence of opportunistic pathogens, coliforms, increased heterotrophic colony counts, development of invertebrates. Disinfection is not effective against biofilms and sediments, which play a key role in regrowth, and cleaning methods are labor intensive. Regrowth therefore should be prevented by strictly limiting the concentration of compounds serving as energy sources for microorganisms. Growth measurements with selected pure bacterial cultures are used for assessing the concentration of easily assimilable organic carbon (AOC) in drinking water. Regrowth of heterotrophic bacteria is very limited in water supplies in the Netherlands at AOC concentrations below 10 µg of acetate-C equivalents per liter. The concentration of biodegradable organic carbon (BDOC), which is assessed as the reduction in DOC concentration in samples incubated with an assemblage of bacteria, did not decrease below the level of 0.2 mg/I in drinking water during distribution in Paris. Biological filtration processes are needed to remove the concentration of growth promoting compounds for obtaining biostable drinking water.

Keywords

Drinking Water Water Work Biological Stability Drinking Water Distribution System Assimilable Organic Carbon 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of Abbreviations and Symbols

ATP

adenosinetriphosphate (ng/1)

AOC

assimilable organic carbon (µg acetate C equivalents/1)

b

die-off rate (h−1)

BDOC

biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (mg/1)

C

organic carbon

CFU

colony forming units

D

pipe diameter (internal) (m)

DBA

diluted broth agar

DOC

dissolved organic carbon (mg/1)

GAC

granular activated carbon

Ks

substrate saturation constant (µg C/1)

Nmax

maximum colony count (CFU/ml)

Re

Reynolds number (dimensionless)

S

substrate concentration (µg C/l)

Smin

substrate concentration at which net growth rate equals zero (threshold substrate concentration) (µg C/l)

V

growth rate (h−1)

Vmax

maximum growth rate (h−1)

υ

flow rate (m/s)

ν

kinematic viscosity of water (m2/s)

Y

bacterial growth yield (CFU/µg C)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Engel HWB, Berwald LG and Havelaar AH (1980) Tubercle 61: 21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Schoenen D, Striegler B, Titulaer P (1985). Off Gesundh Wes 47: 32Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Tobin JOH, Beare J, Dunnil MS (1980). Lancet: 118Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schulze-Robbecke R and Fischeder R (1989) Zbl Hyg 188: 385Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Burke V, Robinson J, Gracey M, Petersen D and Partridge K (1984) Appl. Environ Microbiol 48: 361Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    LeChevallier MW (1990). J. Am. Wat. Works Assoc. 82: 74Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    O’Connor JT, Nash L and Edwards AB (1975) J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 67: 113Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Lee SH, O’Connor JT and Banerji SK (1980) J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 72: 636Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Allen MJ, Taylor RH and Geldreich EE (1980) J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 72: 614Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Ridgway HE and Olson BH (1981) Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 41: 274Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Nagy LA and Olson BH (1985) Proc. Am Water Works Water Quality Technology Conference, Houston, Tex. American Water Works Association. Denver.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    LeChevallier MW, Babcock TM and Lee RG (1987) Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53: 2714Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Donlan RM and Pipes WO (1988). J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 80: 70Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Colboume JS and Brown DA (1979) J. Appl. Bacteriol. 47: 223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Schoenen D and Schöler HF (1985) DVGW Schriftenreihe Wasser nr. 37. Deutscher Verein des Gas-und Wasserfaches, Frankfurt, Germany.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rook J (1974) J. Soc. Water Treatment Exam. 23: 234Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Herson DS McGonigle B, Payer MA and Baker KH (1987) Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 53: 1178Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    LeChevallier MW, Cawthon CD and Lee RG (1988) Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54: 649Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Rittmann BE and Snoeyink VL (1984) J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 76: 106Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Schellart JA (1986) Water Supply 4: 217Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Van der Kooij D and Hijnen WAM (1985) J. Francais d’Hydrology 16: 201CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Servais P, Billen G and Rego JV (1985) Appl. Environ. Micrbiol 49: 1448Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Van der Kooij D and Hijnen WAM (1988) Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 54: 2842Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Baylis, JR, Chase, ES Cox CR Ellms JW Emerson CA Knouse HV and Streeter HW (1930) Am. J. Publ. Hlth 20: 485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Martin RS et al (1982) J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 74: 34Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Smalls LC and Greaves GF (1968) J. Soc. Water Treatment Exam 17: 445Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Schalekamp M (1969) Gas, Wasser, Abwasser 49: 253Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Dietlicher K (1970) Schrftr. Ver. Wasser- Boden- Lufthyg. 31: 1Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hijnen WAM, Koning D, Kruithof JC and Van der Kooij D (1988) Water Supply 6: 265Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Van der Kooij D, Visser A and Hijnen WAM (1982) J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 74: 540Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Werner P (1985) Vom Wasser 65: 257Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Stanfield G and Jago PH (1987) Report PRU 1628-M, Water Research Centre, Medmenham. U.K.Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Servais P, Billen G, Hascoet MC (1987) Water Res. 21: 445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Joret JC and Levy Y (1986) Trib. Cebedeau. 39: 3Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ribas F, Frias J and Lucena F (1991) J. Appl. Bacteriol. 71: 371CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Servais P, Anzil A, Ventresque C (1989) Appt Environ. Microbiol. 55: 2723Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Block JC, Mathieu J, Servais P, Fontvielle D, Werner P (1992) Wat. Res. 26: 481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Huck PM (1990) J Am Water Works Assoc 82: 78Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    BSI, 1988. British Standard 6920. British Standards Institution, United Kingdom.Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    DVGW, 1990. Technische Regeln Arbeitsblatt W270. DVGW Eschborn. Germany.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Van der Kooij D, Hijnen WAM (1981) Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 41: 216Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Van der Kooij D, Visser A, Oranje JP (1982) Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 48: 229CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Van der Kooij (1990) In: McFeters GA (ed) Drinking water microbiology; progress and developments, Brock/Springer Series in Contemporary Bioscience, Springer, Berlin Heidelberg New York, p 57Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Van der Kooij D, Hijnen WAM and Kruithof JC (1989) Ozone Sci. Eng. 11: 297CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Van der Kooij D (1992) J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 84: 57Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Van der Kooij D and Hijnen WAM 1989 Wat. Sci. Technol. 20: 117Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rice EW, Scarpino PV, Reasoner DJ, Logsdon GS and Wild DK (1991) J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 88: 98Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    LeChevallier MW, Schulz, W and Lee RG (1991) Appl. Environ. Microbiol 57: 857Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Joret JC, Levy Y and Volk C (1991). Wat. Sci. Technol 24: 95Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Kaplan LA, Reasoner DJ, Rice EW and Bott TI (1992) Rev Sci de L’eau 5: 225Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Servais P, Billen G, Laurent P, Levy Y, Randon G (1992). Rev, Sci. L’eau 5: 69Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Levy Y, Randon G. Denojean C, Pagliardini A, Vajente G. Champsaur H (1992). Rev. Sci L’eau 5: 225Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Van der Kooij D, Hijnen WAM (1984) Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 47: 551Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Miltner RJ, Shukairy HM and Summers RS (1992) J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 84: 53Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Lechevallier et MW, Becker WC, Schorr P and Lee RG (1992) J. Am. Water Works Assoc. 84: 136Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Van der Kooij D and Hijnen WAM (1985) Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 49: 765Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Van der Kooij D, Oranje JP and Hijnen WAM (1982) Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 44: 1086Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1995

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.KIWA N.V. Research and ConsultancyNieuwegeinThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations