Advertisement

Optical Characterization of In(Ga)As/GaAs Self-assembled Quantum Dots Using Near-Field Spectroscopy

  • Y. Toda
  • Y. Arakawa
Chapter
  • 221 Downloads
Part of the Springer Series in Optical Sciences book series (SSOS, volume 86)

Abstract

Reduced dimensions of carrier motion down to zero-dimensional (OD) can be realized in semiconductor quantum dots. In such OD systems, fully quantized states will significantly improve performance in photonic and electronic device applications [1]. One of the most representative structures is self-assembled quantum dots (SAQDs), using the Stranski-Krastanow (SK) growth mode, in which dots form spontaneously during the overgrowth of highly mismatched materials, as shown in Fig. 1. Because of the absence of processing by lithography and etching, SAQDs provide defect-free structures with high emission efficiency. In addition, their high dot density (> 1011 dots/cm2) and ability to stack vertically enhance carrier density, which is important for realizing quantum dot lasers with low threshold current. Indeed, injection lasers with low threshold current have already been demonstrated using InGaAs/GaAs SAQDs [2].

Keywords

Detection Energy Relaxation Energy High Excited State Longitudinal Optical Phonon Longitudinal Optical 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Y. Arakawa, H. Sakaki: Appl. Phys. Lett. 40, 939 (1982)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    K. Mukai, Y. Nakata, K. Otsubo, M. Sugawara, N. Yokoyama, H. Ishikawa: IEEE J. Quantum Electron. 36, 472 (2000);Google Scholar
  3. F. Heinrichsdorff, Ch. Ribbat, M. Grundmann, D. Bimberg: Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 556 (2000)Google Scholar
  4. 3.
    J.Y. Marzin, J.M. Gerard, A. Izral, D. Barrier, G. Bastard: Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 716 (1994)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 4.
    J. Oshinowo, M. Nishioka, S. Ishida, Y. Arakawa: Appl. Phys. Lett. 65, 1421 (1994)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 5.
    H. Benisty, S.M. Sotomayor-Torres, C. Weisbuch: Phys. Rev. B 44, R10945 (1991); U. Bockelmann: Phys. Rev. B 48, 17637 (1993)Google Scholar
  7. 6.
    U. Bockelmann, T. Egler: Phys. Rev. B 46, 15574 (1992); Al.L. Efros, V.A. Karchenko, M. Rosen: Solid State Commun. 93, 281 (1995)Google Scholar
  8. 7.
    R. Heitz, M. Grundmann, N.N. Ledentsov, L. Eckey, M. Veit, D. Bim-berg, V.M. Ustinov, A.Y. Egorov, A.E. Zhukov, P.S. Kop’ev, Z.I. Alferov: Appl. Phys. Lett. 68, 361 (1996);Google Scholar
  9. R. Heitz, M. Veit, N.N. Ledentsov, A. Hoffmann, D. Bimberg, V.M. Ustinov, P.S. Kop’ev, Z.I. Alferov: Phys. Rev. B 56, 10435 (1997)Google Scholar
  10. 8.
    T. Inoshita, H. Sakaki: Phys. Rev. B 46, 7260 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 9.
    X.Q. Li, H. Nakayama, Y. Arakawa: Phys. Rev. B 59, 5069 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 10.
    S. Hameau, Y. Guldner, O. Verzelen, R. Ferreira, G. Bastard, J. Zeman, A. Lemaitre, J.M. Gerard: Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4152 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 11.
    A. Lemaitre, A.D. Ashmore, J.J. Finley, D.J. Mowbray, M.S. Skolnick, M. Hopkinson, T.F. Krauss: Phys. Rev. B 63, 161309 (2001);Google Scholar
  14. R. Heitz, I. Mukhametzhanov, O. Stier, A. Madhukar, D. Bimberg: Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4654 (1999);Google Scholar
  15. M. Bissiri, G. Baldassarri, Höer von Högersthal, A.S. Bhatti, M. Capizzi, A. Frova, P. Frigeri, S. Franchi: Phys. Rev. B 62, 4642 (2000)Google Scholar
  16. 12.
    D. Leonard, M. Krishnamurthy, C.M. Reaves, S.P. Denbaars, P.M. Petroff: Appl. Phys. Lett. 63, 3203 (1993)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 13.
    Y.A. Pusep, G. Zanelatto, S.W. da Silva, J.C. Galzerani, P.P. GonzalezBorrero, A.I. Toropov, P. Basmaji: Phys. Rev. B 58, R1770 (1998); J. Appl. Phys. 86, 4387 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 14.
    M. Ichimura, A. Usami, M. Tabichi, A. Sasaki: Phys. Rev. B 51, 13231 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 15.
    J. Groenen, G. Landa, R. Carles, P.S. Pizani, M. Gendry: J. Appl. Phys. 82, 803 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 16.
    Y. Toda, S. Shinomori, K. Suzuki, M. Nishioka, Y. Arakawa: Solid State Electron. 42, 1083 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 17.
    D.W. Pohl: Surface Science 181, 174 (1987)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 18.
    E. Betzig, J.K. Trautman: Science 257, 189 (1992)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 19.
    H. Ghaemi, C. Cates, B.B. Goldberg: Ultramicroscopy 57, 165 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 20.
    T. Saiki, K. Matsuda: Appl. Phys. Lett. 74, 2773 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 21.
    S. Mononobe, T. Saiki, T. Suzuki, S. Koshihahara, M. Ohtsu: Opt. Commun. 146, 45 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 22.
    T. Sugimoto, Y. Toda, S. Ishida, M. Nishioka, Y. Arakawa: Technical Digest of Quantum Electronics and Laser Science Conference, San Francisco, May 7-May 12, 2000 pp. 75–76Google Scholar
  27. 23.
    E. Dekel, D. Gershoni, E. Ehrenfreund, D. Spektor, J.M. Garcia, P.M. Petroff: Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 4991 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 24.
    L. Landin, M.S. Miller, M.-E. Pistol, C.E. Pryor, L. Samuelson: Science 280, 262 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 25.
    D. Gammon, E.S. Snow, B.V. Shanabrook, D.S. Katzer, D. Park: Science 273, 87 (1996)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 26.
    K. Matsuda, K. Ikeda, T. Saiki, H. Tsuchiya, H. Saito, K. Nishi: Phys. Rev. B 63, R121304 (2001)Google Scholar
  31. 27.
    T. Takagahara: Phys. Rev. B 60, 2638 (1999)Google Scholar
  32. 28.
    Y. Toda, S. Shinomori, K. Suzuki, Y. Arakawa: Appl. Phys. Lett. 73, 517 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 29.
    M. Bayer, A. Kuther, F. Schaäfer, J.P. Reithmaier, A. Forchel: Phys. Rev. B 60, R8481 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 30.
    Y. Toda, O. Moriwaki, M. Nishioka, Y. Arakawa: Phys. Rev. Lett. 82, 4114 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 31.
    M. Sopanen, H. Lipsanen, J. Ahopelto: Appl. Phys. Lett. 66, 2364 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 32.
    F. Findeis, A. Zrenner, G. Böhm, G. Abstreiter: Phys. Rev. B 61 R10579 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 33.
    J.J. Finley, A.D. Ashmore, A. Lemare, D.J. Mowbray, M.S. Skolnick, I.E. Itskevich, P.A. Maksym, M. Hopkinson, T.F. Krauss: Phys. Rev. B 63, 73307 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 34.
    H. Htoon, D. Kulik, O. Baklenov, A.L. Holmes, Jr., T. Takagahara, C.K. Shih: Phys. Rev. B 63, R241303 (2001)Google Scholar
  39. 35.
    M. Bayer, A. Schmidt, A. Forchel, F. Faller, T.L. Reinecke, P.A. Knipp, A.A. Dremin, V.D. Kulakovskii: Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 3439 (1995)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 36.
    W. Heller, U. Bockelmann: Phys. Rev. B 55, 4871 (1997)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 37.
    M. Bayer, P. Hawrylak, K. Hinzer, S. Fafard, M. Korkusinski, Z.R. Wasilewski, O. Stern, A. Forchel: Science 291, 451 (2001)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 38.
    N.H. Bonadeo, J. Erland, D. Gammon, D. Park, D.S. Katzer, D.G. Steel: Science 282 1473 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 39.
    Y. Toda, T. Sugimoto, M. Nishioka, Y. Arakawa: Appl. Phys. Lett. 76, 3887 (2000)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 40.
    H. Kamada, H. Gotoh, H. Ando, J. Temmyo, T. Tamamura: Phys. Rev. B 60 5791 (1999)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 41.
    Y. Toda, S. Shinomori, K. Suzuki, Y. Arakawa: Phys. Rev. B 58, R10147 (1998)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Y. Toda
  • Y. Arakawa

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations