Modulation of an Electron Beam in Optical Near-Fields
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Many kinds of electron beam devices have been developed and utilized in various scientific areas since the early 1900’s . For instance, microwave amplifiers and oscillators, electron accelerators, and various types of electron microscopes have made major contributions to establish modern science and technology, such as high-speed communication, elementary particle physics, and solid-state physics. On the other hand, most of those for commercial use have been replaced by solid-state devices due to their power consumption and device size. Beam devices, however, have several advantages over solid-state devices, such as wider tuning frequency range and higher output power. Recent advances in vacuum microelectronics  and micromachining technology  provide a useful means for realizing small beam devices. In fact, electron emitters with dimensions of several microns have been fabricated through semiconductor processes .
KeywordsElectron Beam Transition Rate Evanescent Wave Energy Spread Interaction Space
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