Once Upon a Time a DTD Evolved into Another DTD...

  • Lina Al-Jadir
  • Fatmé El-Moukaddem
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 2817)


XML has become an emerging standard for data representation and data exchange over the web. In many applications a schema is associated with an XML document to specify and enforce the structure of the document. The schema may change over time to reflect a change in the real-world, a change in the user’s requirements, mistakes or missing information in the initial design. In this paper, we consider DTDs as XML schema mechanism, and present an approach to manage DTD evolution. We build a set of DTD changes. We identify invariants which must be preserved across DTD changes. We define the semantics of each DTD change such that the new DTD is valid, existing documents conform to the new DTD, and data is not lost if possible. We illustrate our approach with a scenario.


Database Schema Minimum Cardinality Maximum Cardinality Atomic Element Document Type Definition 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Lina Al-Jadir
    • 1
  • Fatmé El-Moukaddem
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Mathematics and Computer ScienceAmerican University of BeirutBeirutLebanon

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