Multi-bit Watermarking Scheme Based on Addition of Orthogonal Sequences

  • Xinpeng Zhang
  • Shuozhong Wang
  • Kaiwen Zhang
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 2776)


In this paper, a scheme of watermark embedding based on a set of orthogonal binary sequences is introduced. The described technique is intended to be incorporated into various public watermarking frameworks developed for different digital media including images and audio signals. Unlike some previous methods using PN sequences in which each sequence carries only one bit of the watermark data, the proposed approach maps a number of bits to a single sequence from an orthogonal set. Both analytical and experimental studies show that, owing to the full exploitation of information carrying capability of each binary sequence, the performance is significantly improved compared with previous methods based on a one-bit-per-sequence technique.


Image Watermark Audio Signal Binary Sequence JPEG Compression Watermark Embedding 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Xinpeng Zhang
    • 1
  • Shuozhong Wang
    • 1
  • Kaiwen Zhang
    • 1
  1. 1.Communication & Information EngineeringShanghai UniversityShanghaiChina

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