Advertisement

Data Hiding in Digital Audio by Frequency Domain Dithering

  • Shuozhong Wang
  • Xinpeng Zhang
  • Kaiwen Zhang
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 2776)

Abstract

A technique that inserts data densely into short frames in a digital audio signal by frequency domain dithering is described. With the proposed method, large embedding capacity can be realized, and the presence of the hidden data is imperceptible. Synchronization in detection is achieved by using a two-step search process that accurately locates a PN sequence-based pilot signal attached to the data during embedding. Except for a few system parameters, no information about the host signal or the embedded data is needed at the receiver. Experimental results show that the method is robust against attacks including AWGN interference and MP3 coding.

Keywords

Audio Signal Data Hiding Quantization Step Digital Audio Audio Watermark 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Swanson, M.D., et al.: Multimedia Data-Embedding and Watermarking Technologies. In: Proc. IEEE, vol. 86, pp. 1064–1087 (1998)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cox, J., Kilian, J., Leighton, F.T., Shamoon, T.: Secure Spread Spectrum Watermarking for images, Audio and Video. IEEE Trans. Image Processing 6, 1673–1687 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Johnson, N.F., et al.: Information Hiding: Steganography and Watermarking —Attacks and Countermeasures. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht (2000)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Swanson, M.D., Zhu, B., Tewfik, A.H., Boney, L.: Robust Audio Watermarking Using Perceptual Masking. Signal Processing 66, 337–355 (1998)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bender, W., et al.: Techniques for Data Hiding. IBM System Journal 35, 313–336 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bassia, P., Pitas, I., Nikolaidis, N.: Robust Audio Watermarking in the Time Domain. IEEE Trans. Multimedia 3, 232–241 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chen, B., Wornell, G.: Quantization Index Modulation: a Class of Provably Good Method for Watermarking and Information Embedding. IEEE Transactions on Information Theory 47(4), 1423–1443 (2001)zbMATHCrossRefMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tilki, J.F.: Encoding a Hidden Digital Signature Using Psychoacoustic Masking. Thesis submitted to the Faculty of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, June 9 (1998)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cox, R.V., et al.: Scanning the Technology: On the Applications of Multimedia Processing to Communications. In: Proc. IEEE, vol. 86, pp. 755–824 (1998)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Johnston, J.D.: Transform Coding of Audio Signal Using Perceptual Noise Criteria. IEEE J. Select. Areas Commu. 6, 314–323 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Tsoukalas, D., Mourjopoulos, J., Kokkinakis, G.: Speech Enhancement Based on Audio Noise Suppression. IEEE Trans. Speech Audio Processing 5, 497–514 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Brad Meyer, E.: ABX Tests and Testing Procedures. Boston Audio Society Speaker 19(3) (1990), http://bostonaudiosociety.org/bas_speaker/abx_testing.htm

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shuozhong Wang
    • 1
  • Xinpeng Zhang
    • 1
  • Kaiwen Zhang
    • 1
  1. 1.Communication & Information EngineeringShanghai UniversityShanghaiChina

Personalised recommendations