Emerging Trends in Adaptive Middleware and Its Application to Distributed Real-Time Embedded Systems

  • Joseph P. Loyall
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 2855)


Embedded systems have become prevalent in today’s computing world and more and more of these embedded systems are highly distributed and network centric. This adds increasing degrees of resource contention, unpredictability, and dynamism to software that has traditionally been designed with resources being provisioned statically and for the worst case. This paper describes the research that we’ve been doing in the development of middleware for QoS adaptive systems – an extension to standard off-the-shelf distributed object middleware – and its application to two military distributed real-time embedded systems. These real-world evaluations of the technology then motivate a discussion of the next directions in which we are taking this research.


Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Object Management Group Defense Advance Research Project Agency Defense Advance Research Project Agency Fighter Aircraft 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
  2. 2.
    Burns, A., Wellings, A.: Real-Time Systems and Programming Languages, 3rd edn. Addison Wesley Longman, Amsterdam (2001)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Corman, D.: WSOA–Weapon Systems Open Architecture Demonstration–Using Emerging Open System Architecture Standards to Enable Innovative Techniques for Time Critical Target (TCT) Prosecution. In: 20th Digital Avionics Systems Conference (DASC), Daytona Beach, Florida (October 2001)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cukier, M., Ren, J., Sabnis, C., Henke, D., Pistole, J., Sanders, W., Bakken, D., Berman, M., Karr, D., Schantz, R.: AQuA: An Adaptive Architecture that Provides Dependable Distributed Objects. In: Proceedings of the 17th IEEE Symposium on Reliable Distributed Systems, October 1998, pp. 245–253 (1998)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
  6. 6.
    Gill, C., Levine, D., Schmidt, D.: The Design and Performance of a Real-Time CORBA Scheduling Service. Real-Time Systems. The International Journal of Time- Critical Computing Systems, special issue on Real-Time Middleware, Kluwer (2001)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Huang, J., Jha, R., Heimerdinger, W., Muhammad, M., Lauzac, S., Kannikeswaran, B., Schwan, K., Zhao, W., Bettati, R.: RT-ARM: A Real-Time Adaptive Resource Management System for Distributed Mission-Critical Applications. In: Workshop on Middleware for Distributed Real-Time Systems, RTSS 1997, San Francisco, California (1997)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    IETF, An Architecture for Differentiated Services,
  9. 9.
    Karr, D., Rodrigues, C., Loyall, J., Schantz, R., Krishnamurthy, Y., Pyarali, I., Schmidt, D.: Application of the QuO Quality-of-Service Framework to a Distributed Video Application. In: Proceedings of the International Symposium on Distributed Objects and Applications, Rome, Italy, September 18-20 (2001)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Karr, D., Rodrigues, C., Loyall, J., Schantz, R.: Controlling Quality-of-Service in a Distributed Video Application by an Adaptive Middleware Framework. In: Proceedings of ACM Multimedia 2001, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada, September 30-October 5 (2001)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Ledeczi, A., Maroti, M., Bakay, A., Karsai, G., Garrett, J., Thomason, C., Nordstrom, G., Sprinkle, J., Volgyesi, P.: The Generic Modeling Environment. In: WISP 2001, Budapest, Hungary (May 2001)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Loyall, J., Bakken, D., Schantz, R., Zinky, J., Karr, D., Vanegas, R., Anderson, K.: QoS Aspect Languages and Their Runtime Integration. In: O’Hallaron, D.R. (ed.) LCR 1998. LNCS, vol. 1511, pp. 303–318. Springer, Heidelberg (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Loyall, J., Schantz, R., Zinky, J., Bakken, D.: Specifying and Measuring Quality of Service in Distributed Object Systems. In: Proceedings of The 1st IEEE International Symposium on Object-oriented Real-time distributed Computing, ISORC 1998 (1998)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Loyall, J., Gossett, J., Gill, C., Schantz, R., Zinky, J., Pal, P., Shapiro, R., Rodrigues, C., Atighetchi, M., Karr, D.: Comparing and Contrasting Adaptive Middleware Support in Wide-Area and Embedded Distributed Object Applications. In: Proceedings of the 21st IEEE International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS–21), Phoenix, Arizona, April 16-19 (2001)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Object Management Group, Fault Tolerant CORBA Specification, OMG Document orbos/99–12–08 (December 1999)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Object Management Group, Minimum CORBA – Joint Revised Submission, OMG Document orbos/98–08–04 (August 1998)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Real-Time, O.M.G.: Embedded Distributed Object Systems Workshop, Arlington, Virginia, July 15–18 (2002)Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Object Management Group, Real-Time CORBA 2.0: Dynamic Scheduling Specification, OMG Final Adopted Specification (September 2001),
  19. 19.
    Schantz, R., Zinky, J., Karr, D., Bakken, D., Megquier, J., Loyall, J.: An Object-level Gateway Supporting Integrated-Property Quality of Service. In: Proceedings of The 2nd IEEE International Symposium on Object-oriented Real-time distributed Computing (ISORC 1999) (May 1999)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Schantz, R., Loyall, J., Atighetchi, M., Pal, P.: Packaging Quality of Service Control Behaviors for Reuse. In: Proceedings of the 5th IEEE International Symposium on Object- Oriented distributed Computing (ISORC 2002), Washington, DC, April 29-May 1 (2002)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Schantz, R., Loyall, J., Rodrigues, C., Schmidt, D., Krishnamurthy, Y., Pyarali, I.: Flexible and Adaptive QoS Control for Distributed Real-time and Embedded Middleware. In: Proceedings of the ACM/IFIP/USENIX International Middleware Conference, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (June 2003)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Schmidt, D.: ACE: an Object-Oriented Framework for Developing Distributed Applications. In: Proceedings of the 6th USENIX C++ Technical Conference (April 1994)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Schmidt, D., Levine, D., Mungee, S.: The Design and Performance of Real-Time Object Request Brokers. Computer Communications (April 1998)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Sharp, D.: Reducing Avionics Software Cost Through Component Based Product Line Development. In: Proceedings of the 10th Annual Software Technology Conference (1998)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Vanegas, R., Zinky, J., Loyall, J., Karr, D., Schantz, R., Bakken, D.: QuO’s Runtime Support for Quality of Service in Distributed Objects. In: Proceedings of Middleware 1998, the IFIP International Conference on Distributed Systems Platform and Open Distributed Processing (September 1998)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Wang, N., Gill, C., Schmidt, D., Gokhale, A., Natarajan, B., Loyall, J., Schantz, R., Rodrigues, C.: QoS-Enabled Middleware. In: Mahmoud, Q.H. (ed.) Middleware for Communications, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester (2003)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Zhang, L., Deering, S., Estrin, D., Shenker, S., Zappala, D.: RSVP: A New Resource ReSerVation Protocol. IEEE Network (September 1993)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Joseph P. Loyall
    • 1
  1. 1.BBN TechnologiesCambridge

Personalised recommendations