A Robust Audio Watermarking Scheme Based on MPEG 1 Layer 3 Compression

  • David Megías
  • Jordi Herrera-Joancomartí
  • Julià Minguillón
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 2828)


This paper describes an audio watermarking scheme based on lossy compression. The main idea is taken from an image watermarking approach where the JPEG compression algorithm is used to determine where and how the mark should be placed. Similarly, in the audio scheme suggested in this paper, an MPEG 1 Layer 3 algorithm is chosen for compression to determine the position of the mark bits and, thus, the psychoacoustic masking of the MPEG 1 Layer 3 compression is implicitly used. This methodology provides with a high robustness degree against compression attacks. The suggested scheme is also shown to succeed against most of the StirMark benchmark attacks for audio.


Copyright protection Audio watermarking Frequency domain methods 


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Copyright information

© IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Megías
    • 1
  • Jordi Herrera-Joancomartí
    • 1
  • Julià Minguillón
    • 1
  1. 1.Estudis d’Informàtica i MultimèdiaUniversitat Oberta de CatalunyaBarcelonaSpain

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