Static and Dynamic Properties of Domains
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The static domain pattern of ferroelectric thin films results from the crystal structure of the film and the misfit strain caused by the substrate. A comparison of conceptual considerations and experimental results of atomic force microscope studies is presented. The motion of the domain walls is analyzed with respect to reversible and irreversible jumps as extracted from small-signal C--V and large-signal P--V measurements. The ferroelectric switching is described in the classical manner for single crystals and compared to the behavior of thin films, in which a superposition of Curie--von Schweidler relaxation processes is observed. The resulting voltage dependence of ferroelectric switching is essential for the speed of FeRAM devices. There are three major types of long-term effects: fatigue, retention, and imprint. The impact of the domain walls and domain wall motion is discussed.
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