Advertisement

Nuclear Astrophysicsand Nuclei Far from Stability

  • Karlheinz Langanke
  • Friedrich-Karl Thielemann
  • Michael Wiescher
Chapter
Part of the Lecture Notes in Physics book series (LNP, volume 651)

Abstract

This lecture concentrates on nucleosynthesis processes in stellar evolution and stellar explosions, with an emphasis on the role of nuclei far from stability. A brief initial introduction is given to the physics in astrophysical plasmas which governs composition changes. We present the basic equations for thermonuclear reaction rates, nuclear reaction networks and burning processes. The required nuclear physics input is discussed for cross sections of nuclear reactions, photodisintegrations, electron and positron captures, neutrino captures, inelastic neutrino scattering, and for beta-decay half-lives. We examine the present state of uncertainties in predictions in general as well as the status of experiments far from stability. It follows a discussion of the fate of massive stars, core collapse supernova explosions (SNe II), and novae and X-ray bursts (explosive hydrogen and helium burning on accreting white dwarfs or neutron stars in binary stellar systems). We address also the production of heavy elements in the r-process up to Th, U and beyond and their possible origin from stellar explosion sites.

Keywords

Neutron Star Stellar Evolution Radioactive Beam Nuclear Astrophysics Core Collapse Supernova 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1. Y. Aboussir, J.M. Pearson, A.K. Dutta, F. Tondeur: Nucl.Phys. A 549, 155 (1992)Google Scholar
  2. 2. Y. Aboussir et al.: At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 61, 127 (1995)Google Scholar
  3. 3. A. Alastuey, B. Jancovici: Astrophys. J. 226, 1034 (1978)Google Scholar
  4. 4. A. Alexakis, A.C. Calder, A. Heger, E.F. Brown, L.J. Dursi, J.W. Truran, R. Rosner, D.Q. Lamb, F.X. Timmes, B. Fryxell, M. Zingale, P.M. Ricker, K. Olson: eprint arXiv:astro-ph/0307126 (2003) and Astrophys. J. 602, 931 (2004)Google Scholar
  5. 5. C. Angulo et al.: Nucl.Phys. A 656, 3 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6. D. Argast, et al.: Astr. and Astrophys. 388, 842 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7. D. Argast, et al.: Astr. and Astrophys., in press (2004)Google Scholar
  8. 8. C. Arlandini et al.: Astrophys. J. 525, 886 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9. Arnett, W.D.: Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 33, 115 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10. Arnett, W.D.: Nucleosynthesis and Supernovae, (Princeton Univ. Press 1996)Google Scholar
  11. 11. W.D. Arnett, F.-K. Thielemann: Astrophys. J. 295, 589 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12. M. Arnould: Astr. and Astrophys. 19, 92 (1972)Google Scholar
  13. 13. M. Arnould, S. Goriely: Phys. Rep. 384, 1 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14. M. Avrigeanu, W. von Oertzen, AJM. Plompen, V. Avrigeanu: Nucl. Phys. A723, 104 (2003)Google Scholar
  15. 15. R. Azuma et al.: Phys. Rev. C 50, 1194 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16. C. Bäumer et al.: Phys. Rev. C 68, 031303 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17. G. Audi et al.: Nucl. Phys. A 624, 1 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18. G. Audi, AH. Wapstra, C. Thibault: Nucl. Phys. A 729, 337 (2003); AH. Wapstra, G. Audi: Nucl. Phys. A 729, 129 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19. M.B. Aufderheide, I. Fushiki, S.E. Woosley, D.H. Hartmann: Astrophys. J. Supplement 91, 389 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20. Z. Y. Bao, F. Käppeler: At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 36, 411 (1987)Google Scholar
  21. 21. Z. Y. Bao, H. Beer, F. Käppeler et al.: At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 76, 70 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22. D.W. Bardayan et al.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 45 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23. D.W. Bardayan et al.: Phys. Rev. C 63, 065802 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24. F.C. Barker, T. Kajino: Aust. J. Phys. 44, 369 (1991)Google Scholar
  25. 25. E. Bauge, JP. Delaroche, M.Girod: Phys. Rev. C 63, 4607 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26. M. Beard, M. Wiescher: Rev. Mex. Fis. Suppl. 49, 139 (2003),Google Scholar
  27. 27. H. Beer, F. Voss, R.R. Winters: Astrophys. J. Suppl. 80, 403 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28. M. Bender et al.: Eur. Phys. J. A8, 59 (2000)Google Scholar
  29. 29. G.P.A. Berg, K. Hatanaka, M. Wiescher, H. Schatz, T. Adachi, A.D. Bacher, C.C. Foster, Y. Fujita, H. Fujita, K. Fujita, J. Görres, Ch. Herman, J. Kamiya, N. sakamoto, Y. Sakemi, Y. Shimbara, Y. Shimizu, E.J. Stephenson, T. Wakasa, M. Yosoi: Nucl.Phys. A 718, 608c (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30. H.A. Bethe, G.E. Brown, J. Applegate, J.M. Lattimer: Nucl. Phys. A 324, 487 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31. H.A. Bethe: Rev. Mod. Phys. 62, 801 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32. L. Bildsten, E.F. Brown: Astrophys.J. 477, 897 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33. L. Bildsten: Astrophys.J. 501, L89 (1998)Google Scholar
  34. 34. L. Bildsten, E.E. Salpeter, I. Wassermann: Astrophys.J. 384, 143 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35. L. Bildsten, T. Strohmayer: Physics Today 52, 40 (1999)Google Scholar
  36. 36. S. Bishop et al.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 162501 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37. J.M. Blatt, V.F. Weisskopf: Theoretical Nuclear Physics (Wiley, New York 1952)Google Scholar
  38. 38. K.H. Bockhoff, A.D. Carlson, O.A. Wasson, J.A. Harvey, D.C. Larson: Nucl. Sci. Eng. 106, 192 (1990)Google Scholar
  39. 39. G. Bollen et al.: Phys. Rev. C 46, R2140 (1992)Google Scholar
  40. 40. I.N. Borzov: Z. Phys. A 335, 125 (1996); Nucl. Phys. A 621, 307c (1997)Google Scholar
  41. 41. I.N. Borzov: Phys. Rev. C 67, 025802 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42. I.N. Borzov, S. Goriely: Phys. Rev. C 62, 5501 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43. V. Bouquelle, N. Cerf, M. Arnould, M. Tachibana, S. Goriely: Astron. and Astrophys. 305, 1005 (1996)Google Scholar
  44. 44. F. Brachwitz, D.J. Dean, W.R. Hix, K. Iwamoto, K. Langanke, G. Martínez-Pinedo, K. Nomoto, M.R. Strayer, F.-K. Thielemann, H. Umeda: Astrophy. J. 536, 934 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45. W. Bradfield-Smith et al., Phys. Rev. C 59, 3402 (1999)Google Scholar
  46. 46. B.A. Brown, R.R.C. Clement, H. Schatz, A. Volya: Phys. Rev. C 65, 04802 (2002)Google Scholar
  47. 47. E. Brown: Astrophys. J. 531, 988 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48. L.S. Brown, R.F. Sawyer: Rev. Mod. Phys. 69, 411 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49. S.W. Bruenn: Astrophys. J. Suppl. 58, 771 (1985); A. Mezzacappa, S.W. Bruenn: Astrophys. J. 405, 637 (1993); 410, 740 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50. S.W. Bruenn, W.C. Haxton: Astr. J. 376, 678 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51. L. Buchmann et al.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 726 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52. L. Buchmann: Astrophys. J. 468, L127 (1996); Ap. J. 479, L153 (1997)Google Scholar
  53. 53. L. Buchmann, R.E. Azuma, C.A. Barnes, J. Humblet, K. Langanke: Phys. Rev. C 54, 393 (1996); Nucl. Phys. A 621, 153 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54. R. Buras, M. Rampp, H.-T. Janka, K. Kifionidis: Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 241101 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55. E.M. Burbidge et al.: Rev. Mod. Phys. 29, 547 (1957)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56. A. Burrows: Astrophys. J. 334, 891 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57. A. Burrows: Ann. Rev. Nucl. Sci. 40, 181 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58. A. Burrows, B.A. Fryxell: Science 258, 430 (1992)Google Scholar
  59. 59. A. Burrows, R.F. Sawyer: Phys.Rev. C 58 554 (1998)Google Scholar
  60. 60. A. Burrows, R.F. Sawyer: Phys. Rev. C 59, 510 (1999 )Google Scholar
  61. 61. A. Burrows, T. Young, P. Pinto, R. Eastman, T.A. Thompson: Astrophys. J. 539, 865 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62. M. Busso et al.: Astrophys. J. 557, 802 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63. J.A. Caggiano et al.: Phys. Rev. C 64, 025802 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64. J.A. Caggiano, W. Bradfield-Smith, J.P. Greene, R. Lewis, P.D. Parker, K.E. Rehm, D.W. Visser: Phys. Rev. C 66, 015804 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65. G.R. Caughlan, W.A. Fowler: At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 40, 283 (1988)Google Scholar
  66. 66. G.R. Caughlan, W.A. Fowler, M.J. Harris, G.E. Zimmerman: At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 32, 197 (1985)Google Scholar
  67. 67. A.G.W. Cameron: Atomic Energy of Canada, Ltd., CRL-41 (1957)Google Scholar
  68. 68. A.G.W. Cameron: Nucl. Phys. A 688, 289 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69. A.G.W. Cameron, R.M. Elkin: Can. J. Phys. 43, 1288 (1965)Google Scholar
  70. 70. E. Caurier, K. Langanke, G. Martínez-Pinedo, F. Nowacki: Nucl. Phys. A 653, 439 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71. G. Chabrier, E. Schatzman: The Equation of State in Astrophysics, IAU Coll. 147, (Cambridge Univ. Press 1994)Google Scholar
  72. 72. A.E. Champagne, M. Wiescher: Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 42, 39 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73. B. Chen et al.: Phys. Lett. B 355, 37 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74. A. Chieffi, M. Limongi: Astrophys. J. 577, 281 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75. J.A. Cizewski et al.: “Single-Particle Structure of Neutron-Rich Nuclei”, In: Proceedings of the International Conference on the Labyrinth in Nuclear Structure, (AIP in press)Google Scholar
  76. 76. D.D. Clayton: Principles of Stellar Evolution and Nucleosynthesis, (Univ. of Chicago Press 1968, 1983)Google Scholar
  77. 77. J. Cooperstein, J. Wambach: Nucl. Phys. A 420, 591 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78. M. Couder et al.: Nucl. Inst. Meth. A 506, 26 (2003)Google Scholar
  79. 79. J.J. Cowan, A.G.W. Cameron, J.W. Truran: Astrophys. J., 265, 429 (1983)Google Scholar
  80. 80. J.J. Cowan et al.: Phys. Rep. 208, 267 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81. J.J. Cowan et al.: Astrophys. J. 521, 194 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82. M. Danos: Nucl. Phys. 5, 23 (1958)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83. B. Davids, S.M. Austin, D. Bazin, H. Esbensen, B.M. Sherrill, I.J. Thompson, J.A. Tostevin: Phys. Rev. C 63, 065806 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84. B. Davids, A.M. van den Berg, P. Dendooven, F. Fleurot, M. Hunyadi, M.A. de Huu, K.E. Rehm, R.E. Segel, R.H. Siemssen, H. Wilschut, H.J. Wörtche, A H. Wuosmaa: Phys. Rev. C 67, 012801 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85. B. Davids, A.M. van den Berg, P. Dendooven, F. Fleurot, M. Hunyadi, M.A. de Huu, R H. Siemssen, H W. Wilschut, H.J. Wörtche, M. Hernanz, J. José, K.E. Rehm, A.H. Wuosmaa, R.E. Segel: Phys. Rev. C 67, 065808 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86. T. Davinson et al.: Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 454, 350 (2000)Google Scholar
  87. 87. D.J. Dean, S.E. Koonin, K. Langanke, P.B. Radha, Y. Alhassid: Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, 2909 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88. T. Delbar et al.: Phys. Rev. C 48, 3088 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89. P. Demetriou, S. Goriely: Nucl. Phys. A 695, 95 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90. P. Demetriou, C. Grama, S. Goriely: Nucl. Phys. A 718, 510c (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91. I. Dillmann et al.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 162503 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92. J. Dobaczewski: Acta Phys. Pol. B 30, 1647 (1999)Google Scholar
  93. 93. D. Eichler et al.: Nature 340, 126 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94. J. Engel et al.: Phys. Rev. C 60, 4302 (1999)Google Scholar
  95. 95. R.I. Epstein, S.A. Colgate, W.C. Haxton: Phys. Rev. Lett. 61, 2038 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96. S.N. Ezhov, V. A. Plujko: Z. Phys. 346, 275 (1993)Google Scholar
  97. 97. S. Fantoni, B.L. Friman, V.R. Pandharipande: Phys. Rev. Lett. 48, 1089 (1981)Google Scholar
  98. 98. M. Fey et al.: Nucl. Phys. A 718, 131Google Scholar
  99. 99. B.W. Filippone: Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 36, 717 (1987)Google Scholar
  100. 100. B.W. Filippone, J. Humblet, K. Langanke: Phys. Rev. C 40, 515 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101. J. Fisker, V. Barnard, J. Görres, K. Langanke, G. Martínez-Pinedo, M. Wiescher: At. Data Nucl. Data Tab. 79, 241 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102. J. Fisker, F. Rembges, V. Barnard, M. Wiescher: In: The influence of binaries on stellar population studies, (Kluwer Academic, Astrophysics and space science library (ASSL), Brussels), 264, 582 (2002)Google Scholar
  103. 103. J.L. Fisker, W.R. Hix, M. Liebendörfer et al.: Nucl. Phys. A 718, 614 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104. J.L. Fisker, F.-K. Thielemann: Astrophys. J., submitted (2004)Google Scholar
  105. 105. W.A. Fowler, G. E. Caughlan, B. A. Zimmermann: Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 5, 525 (1967)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106. W.A. Fowler, G.E. Caughlan, B.A. Zimmerman: Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 13, 69 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107. W. Frank, A. Seeger: Appl. Phys. A 3, 66 (1988)Google Scholar
  108. 108. C. Freiburghaus et al.: Astrophys. J. 516, 381 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109. C. Freiburghaus et al.: Astrophys. J. 525, L121 (1999)Google Scholar
  110. 110. C.L. Fryer, M.S. Warren: Astrophys. J. 574, L65 (2002)Google Scholar
  111. 111. B. Fryxell, M. Zingale, F.X. Timmes, D.Q. Lamb, K. Olson, A.C. Calder, L.J. Dursi, P. Ricker, R. Rosner, J.W. Truran, P. MacNeice, H. Tufo: Nucl. Phys. A 688, 172c (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112. G. M. Fuller: Astrophys. J. 252, 741 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113. G.M. Fuller, W.A. Fowler, M.J. Newman: Astrophys. J. Suppl. 42, 447 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114. G.M. Fuller, W.A. Fowler, M.J. Newman: Astrophys. J. Suppl. 48, 279 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115. G.M. Fuller, W.A. Fowler, M.J. Newman: Astrophys. J. 252, 715 (1982)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116. G.M. Fuller, W.A. Fowler, M.J. Newman: Astrophys. J. 293, 1 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117. G. Fuller, B.S. Meyer: Astrophys. J. 453, 792 (1995), 464, 521 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118. I. Fushiki, D.Q. Lamb: Astrophys. J. 317, 368 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119. E. Gadioli, P.E. Hodgson: Pre-Equilibrium Nuclear Reactions, (Clarendon Press, Oxford 1992)Google Scholar
  120. 120. R. Gallino et al.: Astrophys. J. 497, 388 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121. R.D. Gehrz, J.W. Truran, R.E. Williams, S. Starrfield: Publ. Astronom. Soc. Pacific 110, 3 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122. A. Gilbert, A.G.W. Cameron: Can. J. Phys. 43, 1446 (1965)Google Scholar
  123. 123. A. Gillitzer, T. Faestermann, K. Hartel, P. Kienle, E. Nolte: Z. Phys. A 326, 107 (1987)Google Scholar
  124. 124. P. Gil-Pons, E. Garcia-Berro, J. Jose, M. Hernanz, J.W. Truran: eprint arXiv:astro-ph/0306197 (2003) and Astr. and Astrophys., to be publishedGoogle Scholar
  125. 125. S.A. Glasner, E. Livne, J.W. Truran: Astrophys. J. 475, 754 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126. P. Goldreich, S.V. Weber: Astrophys. J. 238, 991 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127. J. Görres, M. Wiescher, F.-K. Thielemann: Phys. Rev. C 51, 392 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128. J. Görres et al.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 2554Google Scholar
  129. 129. S. Goriely, E. Khan: Nucl. Phys. A 706, 217 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130. S. Goriely et al.: Phys. Rev. C 66, 4326 (2002)Google Scholar
  131. 131. S. Goriely, J. José, M. Hernanz, M. Rayet, M. Arnould: Astrophys. and Astron. 383, 27 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132. S. Goriely, M. Samyn, M. Bender, J.M. Pearson: Phys. Rev. C 68, 054325 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133. J.-S. Graulich et al.: Phys. Rev. C 63, 011302 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134. W. Greiner, D.N. Poenaru: ‘Cluster Preformation in Closed- and Mid-shell Nuclei’. In: Atomic and Nuclear Clusters, 2nd International Conference at Santorini, Greece, June 28–July 2, 1993, ed. by G.S. Anagnostatos, W. von Oertzen (Springer, Heidelberg 1994) pp. 264–266Google Scholar
  135. 135. D. Groombridge et al.: Phys. Rev. C 66, 055802 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136. A.V. Gruzinov, J.N. Bahcall: Astrophys. J. 504, 996 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137. X. Gu et al.: Phys. Lett. B 343, 31 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138. G. Hackman, S.M. Austin, T. Glasmacher, T. Aumann, B.A. Brown, R.W. Ibbotson, K. Miller, B. Pritychenko, L.A. Riley, B. Roeder, E. Spears: Phys. Rev. C 61, 052801(R) (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  139. 139. P. Haensel, J.L. Zdunik: Astron. Astrophys. 404, L3 (2003)Google Scholar
  140. 140. M. Hannawald et al.: Phys. Rev. C 62, 054301 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141. J.P. Hansen, G.M. Torrie, P. Veillefosse: Phys. Rev. A 16, 2153 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142. B. Harss, C.L. Jiang, K.E. Rehm, J P. Schiffer, J. Caggiano, P. Collon, J.P. Greene, D. Henderson, A. Heinz, R.V.F. Janssens, J. Nolen, R.C. Pardo, T. Pennington, R.H. Siemssen, A.A. Sonzogni, J. Uusitalo, and I. Wiedenhöver, M. Paul, T.F. Wang, F. Borasi, R.E. Segel, J.C. Blackmon, M. Smith, A. Chen, P. Parker: Phys. Rev. C 65, 035803 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143. W. Hauser, H. Feshbach: Phys. Rev. A 87, 366 (1952)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  144. 144. P. Hauser, W.R. Hix, M. Liebendörfer, G. Martínez-Pinedo, A. Mezzacappa, F.-K. Thielemann: Astrophys. J., to be submitted (2004)Google Scholar
  145. 145. W.C. Haxton: Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 1999 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146. A. Heger, K. Langanke, G. Martínez-Pinedo, S.E. Woosley: Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1678 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147. A. Heger, S.E. Woosley, G. Martinez-Pinedo, K. Langanke: Astrophys. J. 560, 307 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148. A. Heger, SE. Woosley, T. Rauscher et al.: New Astron. Rev. 46, 463 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149. A. Hektor et al.: Phys. Rev. C 61, 5803 (2000)Google Scholar
  150. 150. R.L. Helmer et al.: Phys. Rev. C 55, 2802 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151. M. Henchek et al.: Phys. Rev. 50, 2219 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152. F. Herfurth et al.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 142501 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153. H. Herndl, J. Görres, M. Wiescher, B.A. Brown, L. van Wormer: Phys. Rev. C 52, 1078 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154. W. Hillebrandt: New Astronomy Rev. 48, 615 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155. M. Hirsch, A. Staudt, K. Muto, H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus: Nucl. Phys. A 535, 62 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  156. 156. W.R. Hix: Ph.D. thesis, (Harvard University, 1995)Google Scholar
  157. 157. W.R. Hix, F.-K. Thielemann: Astrophys. J. 460, 869 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158. W.R. Hix, F.-K. Thielemann: Astrophys. J. 511, 862 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159. W.R. Hix, F.-K. Thielemann; J. Comp. Appl. Math. (JCAM) 109, 321 (1999)Google Scholar
  160. 160. W.R. Hix et al.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 201102 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161. P. Höflich, A. Khokhlov: Astrophys. J. 457, 500 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162. P. Höflich, J.C. Wheeler, F.-K. Thielemann: Astrophys. J. 495, 617 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163. R.D. Hoffman, S.E. Woosley, S.E. Fuller, B.S. Meyer: Astrophys. J. 460, 478 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164. R.D. Hoffman et al.: Astrophys. J. 482, 951 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  165. 165. R.D. Hoffman, S. E. Woosley, T.A. Weaver, T. Rauscher, F.-K. Thielemann: Astrophys. J. 521, 735 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166. J.A. Holmes, S.E. Woosley, W.A. Fowler, B.A. Zimmerman: At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 18, 306 (1976)Google Scholar
  167. 167. C.J. Horowitz: Phys. Rev. D 65, 3001 (2002)Google Scholar
  168. 168. W.M. Howard, B.S. Meyer, D.D. Clayton: Meteoritics 27, 404 (1992)Google Scholar
  169. 169. W.M. Howard, B.S.Meyer, S.E. Woosley: Astrophys. J. Lett. 373, L5 (1991)Google Scholar
  170. 170. W.M. Howard, P. Möller: At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 25, 219 (1980)Google Scholar
  171. 171. J. Hubbard: Phys. Lett. 3, 77; R.D. Stratonovich: Sov. Phys. Dokl. 2, 416 (1958)Google Scholar
  172. 172. C. Iliadis, A. Champagne, J. José, S. Starrfield, P. Tupper: Astrophys. J. Suppl. 142, 105 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173. C. Iliadis, J.M. D’Auria, S. Starrfield, W.J. Thompson, M. Wiescher: Astrophys. J. Suppl. 134, 151 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174. C. Iliadis, P.M. Endt, N. Prantzos, W.J. Thompson: Astrophys. J. 524, 434 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175. S. Ichimaru, S. Tanaka, H. Iyetomi: Phys. Rev. A 29, 2033 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176. S. Ichimaru: Rev. Mod. Phys. 65, 255 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177. S. Ichimaru: 1996, Publ. Astr. Soc. Japan 48, 613 (1996)Google Scholar
  178. 178. S. Ichimaru, K. Utsumi: Astrophys. J. 269, L51 (1983)Google Scholar
  179. 179. S. Ichimaru, K. Utsumi: Astrophys. J. 286, 363 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180. S. Ichimaru, S. Ogata, K. Tsuruta: Phys. Rev. E 50, 2977 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181. A.V. Ignatyuk, K.K. Istekov, G.N. Smirenkin: Sov. J. Nucl. Phys. 29, 450 (1979)Google Scholar
  182. 182. A.S. Iljinov et al.: Nucl. Phys. A 543, 517 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183. Y. Ishimaru et. al.: IAU SYMP 187, 117; MPA/P13, 224 (2002)Google Scholar
  184. 184. N. Itoh, H. Totsuji, S. Ichimaru: Astrophys. J. 218, 477; Astrophys. J. 220, 742 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185. N. Itoh, H. Totsuji, S. Ichimaru, H.E. DeWitt: Astrophys. J. 234, 1079; Astrophys. J. 239, 415 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186. N. Itoh, F. Kuwashima, H. Munakata: Astrophys. J. 362, 620 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187. K. Iwamoto et al.: Astrophys. J. Suppl. 125, 439 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188. A.N. James et al.: Nucl. Inst. Meth. A 267, 144 (1988)Google Scholar
  189. 189. H.T. Janka, M. Rampp: Astrophys. J. 539, L33 (2000)Google Scholar
  190. 190. H.-T. Janka et al: to be publishedGoogle Scholar
  191. 191. H.T. Janka, M. Ruffert: Astron. and Astrophys. 307, L33 (1996)Google Scholar
  192. 192. J.P. Jeukenne, A. Lejeune, C. Mahaux: Phys. Rev. C 16, 80 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193. C.W. Johnson, S.E. Koonin, G.H. Lang, W.E. Ormand: Phys. Rev. Lett. 69, 3157 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194. J. José, A. Coc, M. Hernanz: Astrophys. J. 520, 347 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 195. J. José A. Coc, M. Hernanz: Astrophys. J. 560, 897 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 196. F. Käppeler et al.: Rep. Prog. Phys. 52, 945 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 197. F. Käppeler et al.: Astrophys. J. 437, 396 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 198. F. Käppeler, F.-K. Thielemann, M. Wiescher: Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 48, 175 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199. F. Käppeler: Prog. Part. Nucl. Phys. 43, 419 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  200. 200. V. Kalogera et al.: Astrophys. J. 556, 340 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  201. 201. W. Keil, H.-T. Janka: Astron. and Astrophys. 296, 145 (1995)Google Scholar
  202. 202. A. Kercek, W. Hillebrandt, J.W. Truran: Astron. and Astrophys. 345, 831(1999)Google Scholar
  203. 203. J. Kiener et al.: Nucl. Phys. A 552, 66 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204. K. Kifionidis, T. Plewa, H-T. Janka, E. Müller: Astron. and Astrophys. 408, 621 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  205. 205. H. Kitamura, S. Ichimaru: Astrophys. J. 438, 300 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206. H.V. Klapdor, J. Metzinger, T. Oda: At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 31, 81 (1984)Google Scholar
  207. 207. J.J. Kolata et al.: Phys. Rev. C 63, 024616 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  208. 208. E. Kolbe, S. Krewald, K. Langanke, F.-K. Thielemann: Nucl. Phys. A 540, 599 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209. E. Kolbe et al.: Phys. Rep. 227, 37 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  210. 210. E. Kolbe, K. Langanke, F.-K. Thielemann, P. Vogel: Phys. Rev. C 52, 3437 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  211. 211. E. Kolbe et al.: Eur. J. Phys. A 3, 389 (1998)Google Scholar
  212. 212. E. Kolbe, K. Langanke, G. Martínez-Pinedo, P. Vogel: J. Phys. G 29, 2569 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  213. 213. S.E. Koonin, D.J. Dean, K. Langanke: Phys. Rep. 278, 1 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  214. 214. K.-L. Kratz, F.-K. Thielemann, W. Hillebrandt, P. Möller, V. Harms, J.W. Truran: J. Phys. G 14, 331 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  215. 215. K.-L. Kratz et al.: Z. Phys. A 325, 489 (1986)Google Scholar
  216. 216. K.-L. Kratz et al.: Astrophys. J. 403, 216 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  217. 217. K.-L. Kratz, B. Pfeiffer, F.-K. Thielemann, W.B. Walters: Hyperfine Interactions 129, 185 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  218. 218. A.M. Laird, S. Cherubini, A.N. Ostrowski, M. Aliotta, T. Davinson, A. Di Pietro, P. Figuera, W. Galster, J.S. Graulich, D. Groombridge, J. Hinnefeld, M. Lattuada, P. Leleux, L. Michel, A. Musumarra, A. Ninane, M.G. Pellegriti, A C. Shotter, C. Spitaleri, A. Tumino, J. Vervier, P. Woods: Phys. Rev. C 66 (2002) 048801Google Scholar
  219. 219. K. Langanke, C.A. Barnes: Adv. Nucl. Phys. 22, 173 (1996)Google Scholar
  220. 220. K. Langanke, E. Kolbe: At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 79, 293 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  221. 221. K. Langanke, E. Kolbe: At. Data Nuclear Data Tables 82, 191 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  222. 222. K. Langanke, E. Kolbe, D.J. Dean: Phys. Rev. C 63, 032801 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  223. 223. K. Langanke, G. Martínez-Pinedo: Nucl. Phys. A 673, 481 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  224. 224. K. Langanke, G. Martínez-Pinedo: At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 79, 1 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  225. 225. K. Langanke, G. Martinez-Pinedo: Rev. Mod. Phys. 75, 819 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  226. 226. K. Langanke et al.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 241102 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  227. 227. K. Langanke, M. Wiescher, W.A. Fowler, J. Görres: Astrophys. J. 301, 629 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  228. 228. N. Langer, C. Henkel: In: Nuclei in the Cosmos III, eds. M. Busso, R. Gallino, C.M. Raiteri, (AIP Press, 1995) p. 413Google Scholar
  229. 229. J.M. Lattimer et al.: Astrophys. J. 213, 225 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  230. 230. M.-Y. Lee et al.: Nucl. Instr. Meth. A 422, 536 (1999)Google Scholar
  231. 231. W.H.G. Lewin, J. van Paradijs, R.E. Taam: Space Sci. Rev. 62, 233 (1993)Google Scholar
  232. 232. M. Liebendörfer, A. Mezzacappa, F.-K. Thielemann: Phys. Rev. D 63, 4003 (2001)Google Scholar
  233. 233. M. Liebendörfer et al.: MPA/P 13,126 (2002).Google Scholar
  234. 234. M. Liebendörfer, S. Rosswog, F.-K. Thielemann: Astrophys. J. Suppl. S 141, 229 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  235. 235. M. Liebendörfer, A. Mezzacappa, O.E.B. Messer et al.: Nucl. Phys. A 719, 144 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  236. 236. M. Liebendörfer, O.E.B. Messer, A. Mezzacappa, S.W. Bruenn, C.Y. Cardall, F.-K. Thielemann: Astrophys. J. Suppl. S 150, 263 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  237. 237. M. Limongi, A. Chieffi: Astrophys. J. 592, 404 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  238. 238. M. Livio, J.W. Truran: Astrophys. J. 425, 797 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  239. 239. E. Livne, W.D. Arnett: Astrophys. J. 452, 62 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  240. 240. E. Livne, A. Burrows, R. Walder, I. Lichtenstadt, T.A. Thompson: Astrophys. J., in press (2004)Google Scholar
  241. 241. M.J. Lopez-Jiminez et al.: Phys. Rev. C 66, 025803 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 242. D.R. Lorimer: Living Reviews in Relativity, in press (2002)Google Scholar
  243. 243. L. McFadden, G.R. Satchler: Nucl. Phys. 84, 177 (1966)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  244. 244. C. Mahaux: Phys. Rev. C 82, 1848 (1982)Google Scholar
  245. 245. C. Mahaux, H.A. Weidenmüller: Ann. Rev. Part. Nucl. Sci. 29, 1 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  246. 246. R.A. Malaney, W.A. Fowler: Astrophys. J. 333, 14 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  247. 247. R.A. Malaney, W.A. Fowler: Astrophys. J. 345, L5 (1989)Google Scholar
  248. 248. A. Mamdouh et al.: Nucl. Phys. A 679, 337 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  249. 249. F.M. Mann: Hanford Engineering HEDL-TME 78-83 (1978)Google Scholar
  250. 250. P. Mantica et al.: Phys. Rev. C 67, 014311 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  251. 251. Z.Q. Mao, H.T. Fortune, A.G. Lacaze: Phys. Rev. C 53, 1197 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  252. 252. G. Martinez-Pinedo, K. Langanke: Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4502 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  253. 253. G. McLaughlin, G.M. Fuller: Astrophys. J. 464, L143 (1996)Google Scholar
  254. 254. G.C. McLaughlin et al.: Phys. Rev. C 59, 2873 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  255. 255. A. Mengoni, Y. Nakajima: J. Nucl. Sci. Techn. 31, 151 (1994)Google Scholar
  256. 256. B.S. Meyer: Astrophys. J. 343, 254 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  257. 257. B.S. Meyer et al.: Phys. Rev. C 39, 1876 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  258. 258. B.S. Meyer et al.: Astrophys. J. 399, 656 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. 259. B.S Meyer: Astrophys. J. 449, L55 (1995)Google Scholar
  260. 260. B.S. Meyer et al.: Phys. Rev. C 58, 3696 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  261. 261. A. Mezzacappa: Nucl. Phys. A 688, 158c (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  262. 262. A. Mezzacappa, A.C. Calder, S.W. Bruenn, J.M. Blondin, M.W. Guidry, M.R. Strayer, A.S. Umar: Astrophys. J. 495, 911 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  263. 263. A. Mezzacappa et al.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 1935 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  264. 264. G. Michaud, W.A. Fowler: Phys. Rev. C 2, 2041 (1970)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. 265. G. Michaud, W.A. Fowler: Astrophys. J. 173, 157 (1972)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. 266. D. Mocelj, T. Rauscher, G. Martínez-Pinedo, Y. Alhassid: In: Capture Gamma Ray Spectroscopy and Related Topics. (World Scientific, Singapore 2003) p. 781Google Scholar
  267. 267. D. Mocelj, T. Rauscher, G. Martínez-Pinedo, Y. Alhassid: Nucl. Phys. A 718, 650c (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  268. 268. P. Möller et al.: At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 59, 185 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. 269. P. Möller et al.: At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 66, 131 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  270. 270. P. Möller, J. Randrup: Nucl. Phys. A 514, 1 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  271. 271. P. Möller et al.: Nature 409, 785 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  272. 272. P. Mohr, T. Rauscher, H. Oberhummer, Z. Maté, Zs. Fülöp, E. Somorjai, M. Jaeger, G. Staudt: Phys. Rev. C 55, 1523 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  273. 273. P. Mohr, K.Vogt, M. Babilon et al.: Phys. Lett. B 488, 127 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  274. 274. P. Mohr, M. Babilon, D. Galaviz, et al: Nucl. Phys. A 719, 90c (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  275. 275. J.A. Morgan: Astrophys. J. 238, 674 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  276. 276. T. Motobayashi et al.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 2680-2683 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  277. 277. T. Motobayashi et al.: Phys. Lett. B 264, 259 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  278. 278. E. Müller, H.-T. Janka: Astron. and Astrophys. 317, 140 (1994)Google Scholar
  279. 279. M.J. Musolf et al.: Phys. Rep. 239, 1 (1994); J. Ashman et al.: Nucl. Phys. B 328, 1 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  280. 280. W.D. Myers, W.J. Swiatecki, T. Kodama, L.J. El-Jaick, E.R. Hilf: Phys. Rev. C 15, 2032 (1977)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  281. 281. W.D. Myers, W.J. Swiatecki: Phys. Rev. C 60, 4606 (1999)Google Scholar
  282. 282. S. Nagataki, K. Kohri: Publ. Astron. Soc. Japan 53, 547 (2001)Google Scholar
  283. 283. D.K. Nadyozhin, I.V. Panov: In: WEIN-92. ed. T.D. Vylov (World Scientific, Singapore 1993) p. 479Google Scholar
  284. 284. H. Nakada, Y. Alhassid: Nucl. Phys. A 718, 691c (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  285. 285. T. Niksic et al.: Phys. Rev. C 66, 4306 (2002)Google Scholar
  286. 286. K. Nomoto et al.: In: Type Ia Supernovae: Theory and Cosmology. eds. J. Niemeyer, J.W. Truran (Cambridge Univ. Press 2000) p. 63Google Scholar
  287. 287. K. Nomoto, F.-K. Thielemann, S. Miyaji: Astron. and Astrophys. 149, 239 (1985)Google Scholar
  288. 288. P. Nugent et al.: Astrophys. J. 485, 812 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  289. 289. T. Oda, M. Hino, K. Muto, M. Takahara, K. Sato: At. Data Nucl. Data Tabl. 56, 231 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  290. 290. R. Oechslin et al.: Phys. Rev. D 65, 3005 (2002)Google Scholar
  291. 291. R. Oechslin, K. Uryu, G. Poghosyan, F.-K. Thielemann: Mon. Not. Roy. Astron. Soc., in press (2004)Google Scholar
  292. 292. K. Otsuki et al.: Astrophys. J. 533, 424 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  293. 293. V. Paar, R. Pezer: Phys. Lett. B 411, 19 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  294. 294. R.D. Page et al.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 73, 3066 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  295. 295. R.D. Page, P.J. Woods, R.A. Cunningham, T. Davinson, N.J. Davis, A.N. James, K. Livingston, P.J. Sellin, A.C. Shotter: Phys. Rev. C 49, 3312 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  296. 296. I.V. Panov et al.: Nucl. Phys. A 688, 587 (2001); I.V. Panov, S.I. Blinnikov, F.-K. Thielemann: Astron. Lett. 27, 239 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  297. 297. I.V. Panov, F.-K. Thielemann: Astronomy Letters 29, 510 (2003); I.V. Panov, F.-K. Thielemann: Nucl. Phys. A 718, 647 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  298. 298. S. Pastor, G. Raffelt: Phys. Rev. Lett. 89, 191101 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  299. 299. J.M. Pearson et al.: Phys. Lett. B 387, 455 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  300. 300. R. Pezer, A. Ventura, D. Vretenar: Nucl. Phys. A 717, 21 (2003)CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  301. 301. B. Pfeiffer et al.: Nucl. Phys. A 693, 282 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  302. 302. J.A. Pons et al.: Astrophys. J. 513, 780 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  303. 303. N. Prantzos, R. Diehl: Phys. Rep. 267, 1 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  304. 304. W.H. Press, B.P. Flannery, S.A. Teukolsky, W.T. Vetterling: Numerical Recipes, (Cambridge University Press 1986)Google Scholar
  305. 305. Y.-Z. Qian et al.: Phys. Rev. C 55, 1532 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  306. 306. Y.-Z. Qian, S.E. Woosley: Astrophys. J. 471, 331 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  307. 307. Y.-Z. Qian et al.: Astrophys. J. 494, 285 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  308. 308. Y.-Z. Qian: Astrophys. J. 534, L67 (2000)Google Scholar
  309. 309. M. Rampp, H.T. Janka: Astrophys. J. 539, L33 (2000)Google Scholar
  310. 310. T. Rauscher, J.H. Applegate, J.J. Cowan, F.-K. Thielemann, M. Wiescher: Astrophys. J. 429, 499 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  311. 311. T. Rauscher et al.: Phys. Rev. C 57, 2031 (1997)Google Scholar
  312. 312. T. Rauscher, F.-K. Thielemann: At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 75, 1 (2000); 79, 47 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  313. 313. T. Rauscher et al.: Nucl. Phys. A 675, 695 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  314. 314. T. Rauscher, A. Heger, R.D. Hoffman et al.: Astrophys. J. 576, 323 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  315. 315. T. Rauscher, C. Fröhlich, K.H. Guber: In: Capture Gamma Ray Spectroscopy and Related Topics, (World Scientific, Singapore 2003) p. 336Google Scholar
  316. 316. M. Rayet, N. Prantzos, M. Arnould: Astron. and Astrophys. 227, 211 (1990)Google Scholar
  317. 317. M. Rayet, M. Arnould, M. Hashimoto, N. Prantzos, K. Nomoto: Astr. and Astrophys. 298, 517 (1995)Google Scholar
  318. 318. S. Reddy, M. Prakash, J.M. Lattimer: Phys. Rev. D 58, 3009 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  319. 319. S. Reddy, M. Prakash, J.M. Lattimer, S.A. Pons: Phys. Rev. C 59, 2888 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  320. 320. K.E. Rehm et al.: Phys. Rev. C 53, 1950 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  321. 321. K.E. Rehm et al.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 676 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  322. 322. P.G. Reinhard et al.: Hyperfine Interactions 127, 13 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  323. 323. W. Reisdorf: Z. Phys. A 300, 227 ( 1981)Google Scholar
  324. 324. F. Rembges, C. Freiburghaus, T. Rauscher, F.-K. Thielemann, H. Schatz, M. Wiescher; Astrophys. J. 484, 412 (1997)Google Scholar
  325. 325. J. Ressler et al.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 84, 2104 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  326. 326. C. Rolfs, W.S. Rodney: Cauldrons in the Cosmos, (University of Chicago Press, Chicago 1988)Google Scholar
  327. 327. C. Rolfs, H.P. Trautvetter, W.S. Rodney: Rep. Prog. Phys. 50, 233 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  328. 328. R. Rosner, A. Alexakis, Y.-N. Young, J.W. Truran, W. Hillebrandt: Astrophys. J. 562, L177 (2001)Google Scholar
  329. 329. S. Rosswog et al.: Astron. and Astrophys. 341, 499 (1999); Astron. and Astrophys. 360, 171 (2000)Google Scholar
  330. 330. S. Rosswog, M.B. Davies: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 334, 481 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  331. 331. M. Ruffert, H.-T. Janka: Astron. and Astrophys. 380, 544 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  332. 332. E.E. Salpeter, H.M. van Horn: Astrophys. J. 155, 183 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  333. 333. J.M. Sampaio, K. Langanke, G. Marttínez-Pinedo: Phys. Lett. B 511, 11 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  334. 334. J.M. Sampaio, K. Langanke, G. Martínez-Pinedo, D.J. Dean: Phys. Lett. B 529 (2002) 19Google Scholar
  335. 335. M. Samyn, S. Goriely, J.M. Pearson: Nucl. Phys. A 725, 69 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  336. 336. H. Schatz, A. Aprahamian, J. Görres, M. Wiescher, T. Rauscher, J.F. Rembges, F.-K. Thielemann, B. Pfeiffer, P. Möller, K.-L. Kratz, H. Herndl, B.A. Brown, H. Rebel: Phys. Rep. 294, 168 (1998)Google Scholar
  337. 337. H. Schatz, A. Aprahamian, V. Barnard, L. Bildsten, A. Cumming, M. Ouellette, T. Rauscher, F.-K. Thielemann, M. Wiescher: Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3471 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  338. 338. H. Schatz, L. Bildsten, A. Cummings, M. Wiescher: Astrophys. J. 524, 1014 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  339. 339. H. Schatz, R. Toenjes, B. Pfeiffer, T. Beers, J.-J. Cowan, V. Hill, K.L. Kratz: Astrophys. J. 579, 626 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  340. 340. L. Scheck, T. Plewa, H.-T. Janka, K. Kifionidis, E. Müller: Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 011103 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  341. 341. H. Schlattl et al.: Phys. Rev. D 60, 113002 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  342. 342. V. Schönfelder et al.: Astron. and Astrophys. Suppl., 143, 145 (2000); V. Schönfelder, Nucl. Phys. News 11, 17 (2001)Google Scholar
  343. 343. S. Schramm, S.E. Koonin: Astrophys. J. 365, 296 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  344. 344. F. Schümann et al.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 90, 232501 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  345. 345. P.A. Seeger et al.: Astrophys. J. Suppl. 97, 121 (1965)Google Scholar
  346. 346. N.J. Shaviv, G. Shaviv: Astrophys. J. 558, 925 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  347. 347. J. Shergur et al.: Phys. Rev. C 65, 034313 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  348. 348. S. Shore et al.: Astrophys. J. 421, 344 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  349. 349. K. Sonnabend, A. Mengoni, P. Mohr et al.: Nucl. Phys. A 719, 123c (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  350. 350. O. Sorlin et al.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 092501 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  351. 351. S. Starrfield, C. Iliadis, J.W. Truran, M. Wiescher, W.M. Sparks: Nucl. Phys. A 688, 110c (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  352. 352. S. Starrfield, J.W. Truran, M. Wiescher, W.M. Sparks: Mon. Not. R. Astron. Soc. 296, 502 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  353. 353. H.E. Suess, H.C. Urey: Rev. Mod. Phys. 28 53 (1956)Google Scholar
  354. 354. K. Sumiyoshi et al.: Astrophys. J. 562, 880 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  355. 355. R. Surman et al.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 79, 1809 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  356. 356. A. Staudt, E. Bender, K. Muto, H.V. Klapdor: Z. Phys. A 334, 47 (1989)Google Scholar
  357. 357. A. Staudt, E. Bender, K. Muto, H.V. Klapdor: At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 44, 79 ( 1990)Google Scholar
  358. 358. A. Staudt, H.V. Klapdor-Kleingrothaus: Nucl. Phys. A 549, 254 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  359. 359. R.E. Taam, B.A. Fryxell: Astrophys. J. 294, 303 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  360. 360. R. Taam, S.E. Woosley, T. Weaver, D. Lamb: Astrophys. J. 413, 324 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  361. 361. M. Takahara, M. Nino, T. Oda, K. Muto, A.A. Wolters, P.W.M. Claudemans, K. Sato: Nucl. Phys. A 504, 167 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  362. 362. K. Takahashi, M. Yamada, Z. Kondo: At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 12, 101 (1973)Google Scholar
  363. 363. K. Takahashi, K. Yokoi: At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 36, 375 ( 1988)Google Scholar
  364. 364. K. Takahashi et al.: Astron. and Astrophys. 286, 857 (1994)Google Scholar
  365. 365. J. Taylor: Rev. Mod. Phys. 66, 711 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  366. 366. J.W. Tepel, H.M. Hoffmann, H.A. Weidenmüller: Phys. Lett. B 49, 1 (1974)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  367. 367. M. Terasawa et al.: Astrophys. J. 578, L137 (2002)Google Scholar
  368. 368. F.-K. Thielemann, D. Argast, F. Brachwitz et al.: Nucl. Phys. A 718, 139 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  369. 369. F.-K. Thielemann, W.D. Arnett, Astrophys. J. 295, 604 (1985)Google Scholar
  370. 370. F.-K. Thielemann, M. Arnould, W. Hillebrandt: Astron. and Astrophys. 74, 175 (1979)Google Scholar
  371. 371. F.-K. Thielemann, M. Arnould, J. W.Truran: In: Advances in Nuclear Astrophysics, ed. E. Vangioni-Flam (Editions Frontière, Gif sur Yvette 1987) p. 525Google Scholar
  372. 372. F.-K. Thielemann, F. Brachwitz, P. Höflich, G. Martínez-Pinedo, K. Nomoto: New Astronomy 48, 65 (2004)Google Scholar
  373. 373. F.-K. Thielemann, J. Metzinger, H.V. Klapdor: Z. Phys. A 309, 301 (1983)Google Scholar
  374. 374. F.-K. Thielemann et al.: In: Fifty Years with Nuclear Fission, ed. J.W. Behrens, A.D. Carlson (American Nuclear Society,1989) p. 592Google Scholar
  375. 375. F.-K. Thielemann, M. Hashimoto, K. Nomoto: Astrophys. J. 349, 222 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  376. 376. F.-K. Thielemann, K.-L. Kratz, B. Pfeiffer, T. Rauscher, L. van Wormer, M. C. Wiescher: Nucl. Phys. A 570, 329c (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  377. 377. F.-K. Thielemann, K. Nomoto, M. Hashimoto: Astrophys. J. 460, 408 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  378. 378. F.-K. Thielemann, K. Nomoto, K. Yokoi: Astron. and Astrophys. 158, 17 (1986)Google Scholar
  379. 379. F.-K. Thielemann, J.W. Truran: In Advances in Nuclear Astrophysics, eds. E. Vangioni-Flam et al. (Editions Frontières, Gif sur Yvette 1987) p. 541Google Scholar
  380. 380. D. Thomas, D.N. Schramm, K.A. Olive, B.D. Fields: Astrophys. J. 406, 569 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  381. 381. D. Thomas, D.N. Schramm, K.A. Olive: Astrophys. J. 430, 291 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  382. 382. J. Thomas, M.R. Zirnbauer, K. Langanke: Phys. Rev. C 33, 2197 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  383. 383. T.A. Thompson et al.: Astrophys. J. 562, 887 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  384. 384. T.A. Thompson, A. Burrows, P.A. Pinto: Astrophys. J. 592, 434 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  385. 385. S.E. Thorsett: Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 1432 (1996)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  386. 386. P. Tischhauser, R.E.Azuma, L. Buchmann, R. Detwiler, U. Giesen, J. Görres, M. Heil, J. Hinnefeld, F. Käppeler et al.: Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 072501 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  387. 387. J. Toivanen et al.: Nucl. Phys. A 694, 395 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  388. 388. V. Trimble: Rev. Mod. Phys. 47, 877 (1975)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  389. 389. V. Trimble: Astron. Astrophys. Rev. 3, 1 (1991)Google Scholar
  390. 390. J.W. Truran: Astrophys. Space Sci. 18, 308 (1972)Google Scholar
  391. 391. J.W. Truran: In: Essays in Nuclear Astrophysics, eds. C.A. Barnes, D.D. Clayton, D.N. Schramm (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1982) p. 467Google Scholar
  392. 392. J.W. Truran: Ann. Rev. Nucl. Part. Sci. 34, 53 (1985)Google Scholar
  393. 393. J.W. Truran, A.G.W. Cameron, A. Gilbert: Can. J. Phys. 44, 563 (1966)Google Scholar
  394. 394. J.W. Truran, J.J. Cowan, A.G.W. Cameron: Astrophys. J. 222, L63 (1978)Google Scholar
  395. 395. H. Umeda, K. Nomoto: Astrophys. J. 565, 385 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  396. 396. H. Utsunomiya, et al.: Phys. Rev. C 67, 015807 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  397. 397. G. Vancraeynest et al.: Phys. Rev. C 57, 2711 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  398. 398. S. van Eck, S. Goriely, A. Jorissen et al.: Nature 412, 793 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  399. 399. S. van Eck, S. Goriely, A. Jorissen et al.: Astron. and Astrophys. 404, 291 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  400. 400. L. van Wormer, J. Görres, C. Iliadis, M. Wiescher, F.-K. Thielemann: Astrophys. J. 432, 326 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  401. 401. R.L. Varner, W.J. Thompson, T.L. McAbee, E.J. Ludwig, T.B. Clegg: Phys. Rep. 201, 57 (1991)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  402. 402. J.J.M. Verbaatschot, H.A. Weidenmüller, M.R. Zirnbauer: Phys. Rep. 129, 367 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  403. 403. T. von Egidy, A.N. Behkami, H.H. Schmidt: Nucl. Phys. A 376, 405 (1986)Google Scholar
  404. 404. T. von Egidy, H.H Schmidt, A.N. Behkami: Nucl. Phys. A 481, 189 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  405. 405. M.C. Vetterli et al.: Phys. Rev. C 45, 997 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  406. 406. D. Vretenar et al.: Phys. Rev. C 63, 7301 (2001)Google Scholar
  407. 407. D. Vretenar, N. Paar, P. Ring, G.A. Lalazissis: Phys. Rev. C 63, 047301 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  408. 408. D. Vretenar, T. Niksic, P. Ring: Phys. Rev. C 68, 024310 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  409. 409. R.V. Wagoner: Astrophys. J. Suppl. 18, 247 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  410. 410. R.A. Wallace, S.E. Woosley: Astrophys. J. Suppl. 45, 389 (1981)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  411. 411. G. Wallerstein et al.: Rev. Mod. Phys. 69, 995 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  412. 412. S. Wanajo et al.: Astrophys. J. 554, 578 (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  413. 413. R.-P. Wang, F.-K. Thielemann, D.H. Feng, C.-L. Wu: Phys. Lett. B 284, 196 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  414. 414. M. Wiescher, J. Görres, F.-K. Thielemann, H. Ritter: Astron. and Astrophys. 160, 56 (1986)Google Scholar
  415. 415. M. Wiescher, V. Harms, J. Görres, F.-K. Thielemann, L.J. Rybarcyk: Astrophys. J. 316, 162 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  416. 416. M. Wiescher, J. Görres: Z. Phys. A 329, 121 (1988)Google Scholar
  417. 417. M. Wiescher, J. Görres, F.-K. Thielemann, Astrophys. J. 326, 384 (1988)Google Scholar
  418. 418. M. Wiescher, J. Görres, F.-K. Thielemann: Astrophys. J. 363, 340 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  419. 419. M. Wiescher, J. Görres, S. Graaf, L. Buchmann, F.-K. Thielemann: Astrophys. J. 343, 352 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  420. 420. M. Wiescher, R. Steininger, F. Käppeler: Astrophys. J. 344, 464 (1989)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  421. 421. M. Wiescher, J. Görres, H. Schatz, J. Phys. G: Nucl. Part. Phys. 25, R133 (1999)Google Scholar
  422. 422. M. Wiescher, H. Schatz, A. Champagne: Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 356, 2105 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  423. 423. L. Wilets, B.G. Giraud, M.J. Watrous, J.J. Rehr: Astrophys. J. 530, 504 (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  424. 424. J.R. Wilson: In Numerical Astrophysics, ed. by J.M. Centrella, J.M. LeBlanc, R.L. Bowers, (Jones and Bartlett, Boston 1985) p. 422Google Scholar
  425. 425. J.R. Wilson: In Fermi and Astrophysics, ed. R. Ruffin (Nuovo Cimento, to be published)Google Scholar
  426. 426. J.R. Wilson, R.W. Mayle: Phys. Rep. 227, 97 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  427. 427. J.A. Winger et al.: Phys. Rev. C 48, 3097 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  428. 428. K. Wisshak, F. Voss, F. Käppeler, I. Kerzakov: Nucl. Phys. A 621, 270c (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  429. 429. S.E. Woosley, W.D. Arnett, D.D. Clayton: Astrophys. J. Suppl. 26, 231 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  430. 430. S.E. Woosley, W.A. Fowler, J.A. Holmes, B.A. Zimmerman: At. Data Nucl. Data Tables 22, 371 (1978)Google Scholar
  431. 431. S.E. Woosley, D. Hartmann, R.D. Hoffman, W.C. Haxton: Astrophys. J. 356, 272 (1990)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  432. 432. S.E. Woosley, A. Heger, T.A. Weaver: Rev. Mod. Phys. 74, 1015 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  433. 433. S.E. Woosley, A. Heger, A. Cumming, R.D. Hoffman, J. Pruet, T. Rauscher, J.L. Fisker, H. Schatz, B.A. Brown, M. Wiescher: eprint arXiv:astro-ph/0307425 (2003); Astrophys. J. Suppl. 151, 75 (2004)Google Scholar
  434. 434. S.E. Woosley, R.D. Hoffman: Astrophys. J. 395, 202 (1992)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  435. 435. S.E. Woosley, W.M. Howard: Astrophys. J. Suppl. 36, 285 (1978)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  436. 436. S.E. Woosley et al.: Astrophys. J. 433, 229 (1994)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  437. 437. S.E. Woosley, T.A. Weaver: Ann. Rev. Astron. Astrophys. 24, 205 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  438. 438. S.E. Woosley, T.A. Weaver: Astrophys. J. Suppl. 101, 181 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  439. 439. T. Yoshida, M. Terasawa, T. Kajino, K. Sumiyoshi: Astrophys. J. 600, 204 (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  440. 440. Z. Zhao, R.H. France, K.S. Lai, S.L. Rugari, M. Gai, E.L. Wilds: Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 2066 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  441. 441. Z. Zhao, R.H. France, K.S. Lai, S.L.Rugari, M. Gai, E.L. Wilds, R.A. Kryger, J.A. Winger, K.B. Beard: Phys. Rev. C 48, 429 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  442. 442. A. Zilges, S. Volz, M. Babilon, T. Hartmann, P. Mohr, K. Vogt: Phys. Lett. B 542, 43 (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Authors and Affiliations

  • Karlheinz Langanke
    • 1
  • Friedrich-Karl Thielemann
    • 2
  • Michael Wiescher
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute for Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, 8000 AarhusDenmark
  2. 2.Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Basel, 4056 BaselSwitzerland
  3. 3.Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, IN 46556USA

Personalised recommendations