Advertisement

Testing the First Law of Cognitive Geography on Point-Display Spatializations

  • Daniel R. Montello
  • Sara Irina Fabrikant
  • Marco Ruocco
  • Richard S. Middleton
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 2825)

Abstract

Spatializations are computer visualizations in which nonspatial information is depicted spatially. Spatializations of large databases commonly use distance as a metaphor to depict semantic (nonspatial) similarities among data items. By analogy to the “first law of geography”, which states that closer things tend to be more similar, we propose a “first law of cognitive geography,” which states that people believe closer things are more similar. In this paper, we present two experiments that investigate the validity of the first law of cognitive geography as applied to the interpretation of “point-display spatializations.” Point displays depict documents (or other information-bearing entities) as 2- or 3-dimensional collections of points. Our results largely support the first law of cognitive geography and enrich it by identifying different types of distance that may be metaphorically related to similarity. We also identify characteristics of point displays other than distance relationships that influence similarity judgments.

Keywords

Direct Distance Similarity Judgment Information Visualization Display Type Comparison Point 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    International Cartographic Association (ed.): Multilingual Dictionary of Technical Terms in Cartography. ICA, Stuttgart (1973)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Card, S.K., Mackinlay, J.D., Shneiderman, B.: Readings in Information Visualization: Using Vision to Think. Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco (1999)Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Spence, R.: Information Visualization. Addison Wesley, Boston (2001)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Fabrikant, S.I.: Evaluating the Usability of the Scale Metaphor for Querying Semantic Spaces. In: Montello, D.R. (ed.) COSIT 2001. LNCS, vol. 2205, pp. 156–172. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    MacEachren, A.M.: How Maps Work: Representation, Visualization, and Design. Guilford Press, New York (1995)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Slocum, T.A., Blok, C., Jiang, B., Koussoulakou, A., Montello, D.R., Fuhrmann, S., Hedley, N.R.: Cognitive and Usability Issues in Geovisualization. Cart. & Geog. Infor. Sci. 28, 61–75 (2001)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Couclelis, H.: Worlds of Information: The Geographic Metaphor in the Visualization of Complex Information. Cart. & Geog. Infor. Sys. 25, 209–220 (1998)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kuhn, W., Blumenthal, B.: Spatialization: Spatial Metaphors for User Interfaces. Depart. Geoinfor. Tech. Univ. Vienna (1996)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Fabrikant, S.I., Buttenfield, B.P.: Formalizing Semantic Spaces For Information Access. Annals Assoc. Amer. Geog. 91, 263–280 (2001)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shepard, R.N.: Representation of Structure in Similarity Data—Problems and Prospects. Psychometrika 39, 373–422 (1974)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Skupin, A.: From Metaphor to Method: Cartographic Perspectives on Information Visualization. In: IEEE Symposium on Information Visualization, InfoVis 2000, Salt Lake City, UT, pp. 91–97 (2000)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tobler, W.R.: A Computer Movie Simulating Urban Growth in the Detroit Region. Econ. Geog. 46, 234–240 (1970)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Fabrikant, S.I.: Spatial Metaphors for Browsing Large Data Archives. Unpublished Ph.D. Diss., Depart. Geog., Univ. Colorado-Boulder (2000)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Chalmers, M.: Using a Landscape Metaphor to Represent a Corpus of Documents. In: Campari, I., Frank, A.U. (eds.) COSIT 1993. LNCS, vol. 716, pp. 377–390. Springer, Heidelberg (1993)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Wise, T.A.: The Ecological Approach to Text Visualization. J. Amer. Soc. Infor. Sci. 53, 1224–1233 (1999)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Dieberger, A., Frank, A.U.: A City Metaphor for Supporting Navigation in Complex Information Spaces. J. Visual Lang. Comp. 9, 597–622 (1998)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Berendt, B., Jansen-Osmann, P.: Feature Accumulation and Route Structuring in Distance Estimations - An Interdisciplinary Approach. In: Frank, A.U. (ed.) COSIT 1997. LNCS, vol. 1329, pp. 279–296. Springer, Heidelberg (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Hartley, A.A.: Mental Measurement in the Magnitude Estimation of Length. J. Exp. Psych.: Human Perc. Perf. 3, 622–628 (1977)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Montello, D.R.: The Perception and Cognition of Environmental Distance: Direct Sources of Information. In: Frank, A.U. (ed.) COSIT 1997. LNCS, vol. 1329, pp. 297–311. Springer, Heidelberg (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Goldstone, R.L.: Similarity, Interactive Activation, and Mapping. J. Exp. Psych.: Learn., Mem., Cog. 20, 3–28 (1994)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Medin, D.L., Goldstone, R.L., Gentner, D.: Respects for Similarity. Psych. Rev. 100, 254–278 (1993)Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Tversky, A.: Features of Similarity. Psych. Rev. 84, 327–352 (1977)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Buffardi, L.: Factors Affecting the Filled-Duration Illusion in the Auditory, Tactual, and Visual Modalities. Perc. & Psychophys. 10, 292–294 (1971)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Thorndyke, P.W.: Distance Estimation from Cognitive Maps. Cog. Psych. 13, 526– 550 (1981)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Amstrong, L., Marks, L.E.: Differential Effects of Stimulus Context on Perceived Length: Implications for the Horizontal-Vertical Illusion. Perc. & Psychophys. 59, 1200–1213 (1997)Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gregory, R.L.: Eye and Brain: The Psychology of Seeing, 3rd edn. McGraw-Hill, New York (1978)Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Goldstein, E.B.: Sensation and Perception, 3rd edn. Wadsworth, Belmont (1989)Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Gregory, R.L. (ed.): The Oxford Companion to the Mind. Oxford University Press, Oxford (1987)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Cohen, J., Cohen, P.: Applied Multiple Regression/Correlation Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. Lawrence Erlbaum Ass., Hillsdale (1975)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Montello, D.R.: Scale and Multiple Psychologies of Space. In: Campari, I., Frank, A.U. (eds.) COSIT 1993. LNCS, vol. 716, pp. 312–321. Springer, Heidelberg (1993)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Masin, S.C.: Absolute and Relative Effects of Similarity and Distance on Grouping. Perc. 31, 799–811 (2002)Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Friedman, A., Brown, N.R.: Reasoning about Geography. J. Exper. Psych.: Gen. 129, 193–219 (2000)Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Hirtle, S.C., Jonides, J.: Evidence of Hierarchies in Cognitive Maps. Mem. & Cog. 13, 208–217 (1985)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Huttenlocher, J., Hedges, L.V., Duncan, S.: Categories and Particulars: Prototype Effects in Estimating Spatial Location. Psych. Rev. 98, 352–376 (1991)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel R. Montello
    • 1
  • Sara Irina Fabrikant
    • 1
  • Marco Ruocco
    • 1
  • Richard S. Middleton
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of GeographyUniversity of California at Santa BarbaraSanta BarbaraUSA

Personalised recommendations