Cryptanalysis of Block Ciphers Based on SHA-1 and MD5

  • Markku-Juhani O. Saarinen
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 2887)


We cryptanalyse some block cipher proposals that are based on dedicated hash functions SHA-1 and MD5. We discuss a related-key attack against SHACAL-1 and present a method for finding ”slid pairs” for it. We also present simple attacks against MDC-MD5 and the Kaliski-Robshaw block cipher.


SHA-1 SHACAL MD5 MDC Slide attacks Dedicated hash functions 


  1. 1.
    Anderson, R.: The Classification of Hash Functions. In: Proc. Codes and Cyphers: Cryptography and Coding IV, Institute of Mathematics & Its Applications, pp. 83–93 (1995)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Berson, T.A.: Differential Cryptanalysis Mod 232 with Applications to MD5. In: Rueppel, R.A. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 1992. LNCS, vol. 658, pp. 71–80. Springer, Heidelberg (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Black, J., Rogaway, P., Shrimpton, T.: Black-Box Analysis of the Block-Cipher- Based Hash-Function Constructions from PGV. In: Yung, M. (ed.) CRYPTO 2002. LNCS, vol. 2442, pp. 320–335. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Biryukov, A., Wagner, D.: Slide attacks. In: Knudsen, L.R. (ed.) FSE 1999. LNCS, vol. 1636, pp. 245–259. Springer, Heidelberg (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Biryukov, A., Wagner, D.: Advanced Slide Attacks. In: Preneel, B. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 2000. LNCS, vol. 1807, pp. 589–606. Springer, Heidelberg (2000)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    den Boer, B., Bosselaers, A.: Collisions for the compression function of MD5. In: Helleseth, T. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 1993. LNCS, vol. 765, pp. 293–304. Springer, Heidelberg (1994)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Damgård, I.: A Design Principle for Hash Functions. In: Brassard, G. (ed.) CRYPTO 1989. LNCS, vol. 435, pp. 399–416. Springer, Heidelberg (1990)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Dobbertin, H.: Cryptanalysis of MD5 Compress. Presented at Eurocrypt 1996 rump session, May 14 (1996)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Gutmann, P.C.: SFS Version 1.0 Documentation. Available form
  10. 10.
    Handschuh, H., Knudsen, L.R., Naccache, D.: Analysis of SHA-1 in Encryption Mode. In: Naccache, D. (ed.) CT-RSA 2001. LNCS, vol. 2020, pp. 70–83. Springer, Heidelberg (2001)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Handschuh, H., Naccache, D.: SHACAL. Submission to the NESSIE project (2000), Available from
  12. 12.
    Handschuh, H., Naccache, D.: SHACAL: A Family of Block Ciphers. Submission to the NESSIE project (2002), Available from
  13. 13.
    Kaliski, B.S., Robshaw, M.J.B.: Fast Block Cipher Proposal. In: Anderson, R. (ed.) FSE 1993. LNCS, vol. 809, pp. 33–40. Springer, Heidelberg (1994)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Merkle, R.: One Way Hash Functions and DES. In: Brassard, G. (ed.) CRYPTO 1989. LNCS, vol. 435, pp. 428–446. Springer, Heidelberg (1990)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Nichols, R.K., Lekkas, P.C.: Wireless Security – Models, Threats, and Solutions. McGraw-Hill, New York (2002)Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Preneel, B., Govaerts, R., Vandewalle, J.: Hash Functions Based on Block Ciphers: A Synthetic Approach. In: Stinson, D.R. (ed.) CRYPTO 1993. LNCS, vol. 773, pp. 368–378. Springer, Heidelberg (1994)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Preneel, B.: Cryptographic Primitives for Information Authentication – State of the Art. In: Preneel, B., Rijmen, V. (eds.) State of the Art in Applied Cryptography. LNCS, vol. 1528, pp. 49–130. Springer, Heidelberg (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Rivest, R.: The MD5 Message-Digest Algorithm Network Working Group RFC 1321 (1992)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    U.S. Department of Commerce. FIPS PUB 180-1: Secure Hash Standard. Federal Information Processing Standards Publication (April 1995)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    U.S. Department of Commerce. FIPS PUB 180-2: Secure Hash Standard, Draft Federal Information Processing Standards Publication (2001)Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Wagner, D.: A Slide Attack on SHA-1. Unpublished manuscript and personal communication, June 4 (2001)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2003

Authors and Affiliations

  • Markku-Juhani O. Saarinen
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory for Theoretical Computer ScienceHelsinki University of TechnologyFinland

Personalised recommendations