Visual Crypto Displays Enabling Secure Communications

  • Pim Tuyls
  • Tom Kevenaar
  • Geert-Jan Schrijen
  • Toine Staring
  • Marten van Dijk
Conference paper
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 2802)


In this paper we describe a low-tech and user friendly solution for secure two-way communication between two parties over a network of untrusted devices. We present a solution in which displays play a central role. Our approach guarantees privacy and allows to check the authenticity of information presented on displays. Furthermore, we provide the user with a secure return channel. To this end we propose to provide every user with a small decryption display which is, for example, integrated in a credit card and requires very limited computing power. The authentication and security are based on visual cryptography which was first introduced by Naor and Shamir in 1994. We solve some practical shortcomings of traditional visual cryptography and develop protocols for two-way authentication and privacy in untrusted environments.


Grid Cell Secret Sharing Scheme Pseudo Random Number Generator Internet Banking Visual Cryptography 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Benham, M.: Internet Explorer SSL Vulnerability, article on (August 2002), see
  2. 2.
    Biham, E.: Visual Cryptography with Polarisation, Security Seminar, University of Camebridge (August 1997), see
  3. 3.
    Blundo, C., De Santis, A., Stinson, D.: On the contrast in visual cryptography schemes (1996) (manuscript), Available at
  4. 4.
    Burnside, M., Clarke, D., Gassend, B., Kotwal, T., Devadas, S., van Dijk, M., Rivest, R.: The untrusted computer problem and camera-based authentication. In: Mattern, F., Naghshineh, M. (eds.) PERVASIVE 2002. LNCS, vol. 2414, p. 114. Springer, Heidelberg (2002)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Burnside, M., Clarke, D., Mills, T., Maywah, A., Devadas, S., Rivest, R.: Proxy based security protocols in networked mobile devices. In: Proceedings SAC (2002)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Case Western Reserve University, PLC group, virtual textbook on liquid crystal displays,
  7. 7.
    Claessens, J.: Analysis and design of an advanced infrastructure for secure and anonymous electronic payment system on the Internet, Ph.D. thesis, K.U. Leuven (December 2002)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Matsumoto, T.: Human identification through an insecure channel. In: Theory and Application of Cryptographic techniques, pp. 409-421 (1991)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Matsumoto, T.: Human-Computer Cryptography: An attempt. In: ACM conference on Computer and Communication security, pp. 68-75 (1966)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Menezes, A., van Oorschot, P., van Stone, S.: Handbook of Applied Cryptography. CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton (1997)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Naor, M., Shamir, A.: Visual Cryptography. In: De Santis, A. (ed.) EUROCRYPT 1994. LNCS, vol. 950, pp. 1–12. Springer, Heidelberg (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Naor, M., Pinkas, B.: Visual Authentication and Identification. In: Kaliski Jr., B.S. (ed.) CRYPTO 1997. LNCS, vol. 1294, pp. 322–336. Springer, Heidelberg (1997)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Rijmen, V., Preneel, B.: Efficient colour visual encryption or ’shared colors of Benetton’. Presented at the rump session of Eurocrypt 1996 (1996), Also available at
  14. 14.
    Simmons, G.: A survey of information authentication. In: Contemporary Cryptography – The science of information integrity, pp. 379–419. IEEE Computer Society Press, Los AlamitosGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Stinson, D.R.: An introduction to visual cryptography. Presented at Public Key solutions (1997), Available at
  16. 16.
    Tuyls, P., Hollmann, H.D.L., Lint, J.H.v., Tolhuizen, L.: Polarisation based Visual Crypto System and its Secret Sharing Schemes. Available at the IACR Cryptology ePrint Archive,
  17. 17.
    Verheul, E., van Tilborg, H.: Constructions and properties of \(\mathcal{K}\) out of \(\mathcal{n}\) visual secret sharing schemes. Designs Codes and Cryptography 11, 179–196 (1997)zbMATHCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pim Tuyls
    • 1
  • Tom Kevenaar
    • 1
  • Geert-Jan Schrijen
    • 1
  • Toine Staring
    • 1
  • Marten van Dijk
    • 1
  1. 1.Philips Research LaboratoriesEindhoventhe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations