Advertisement

Lidar Measurements of Clouds

  • Allan I. Carswell
Part of the Springer Series in Optical Sciences book series (SSOS, volume 39)

Abstract

Clouds present one of the most difficult challenges in the quantitative description of radiative transfer in the atmosphere. They occur widely in the atmosphere and have a great diversity of physical characteristics such as their position, extent, water content, droplet size, ice content, etc. Optically they present a broad range of properties which are generally described in terms of parameters such as, extinction, reflectance and emissivity. One of the dominant characteristics of all clouds is their large variability in both space and time. It is this aspect which makes an accurate modelling of their optical properties in any radiative transfer calculations very difficult — particularly since cloud optical data with good spatial and temporal resolution are still quite limited.

Keywords

Multiple Scattering Liquid Water Content Backscatter Signal Lidar System Lidar Measurement 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    D. Clarke and J. F. Grainger “Polarized Light and Optical Measurement” Pergamon (1971)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    A. I. Carswell, pg 363 in “Clouds: Their Formation, Optical Properties and Effects” edited by P.V. Hobbs and A. Deepak, Academic Press, 1981.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    E. D. Hinkley, ed. “Laser Monitoring of the Atmosphere” Springer-Verlag, (1976)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    A.I. Carswell, Can. J. Phy. 61 No.2 (1983)Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    S. R. Pal and A. I. Carswell. Appl. Opt. 12, 1530, (1973)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    S. R. Pal and A. I. Carswell, App. Opt. 15, 990, (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    J. S. Ryan and A. I. Carswell, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 68, 900 (1978).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    A. I. Carswell, AGARD Conf. Proc. CP300 Monterey Apr.1981Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    J. D. Klett, Appl. Opt. 20, 211, (1981)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    B. T. N. Evans, Proc 11th International Laser Radar Conf., NASA Conf. Publ. CP 2228 Madison (1982) p, 152.Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    R. E. Kluchert, B. T. N. Evans, J.D. Houston, ibid p.120Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Proc. 11th International Laser Radar Conf. NASA Conf. Publ. CP2228 (1982)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    F. E. Nicodemus, J.C. Richmond and J. J. Hria, NBS Monograph 160 (1977)Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    S. R. Pal, J.S. Ryan and A. I. Carswell, Appl. Opt. 17 2257 (1978)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    J. S. Ryan, S. R. Pal and A. I. Carswell, J. Opt. Soc. Amer. 69, 60 (1979)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    A. I. Carswell, Proc. 11th International Laser Radar Conf. NASA Conf. Publ. CP 2228, p 236 (1982)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    W. R. McNeil and A. I. Carswell, Appl. Opt. 14, 2158 (1975)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    A. I. Carswell and S. R. Pal, Appl. Opt. 19, 4123 (1980)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    P. Chylek, J. Atmos. Sci. 35, 296, (1978)ADSGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    R. G. Pinnick, S. G. Jennings, P. Chylek and H. J. Auvermann J. Atmos, Sci. 36, 1577, (1979)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    R. G. Pinnick, S. G. Jennings and P. Chylek, J. Geophys.Res. 85, 4059 (1980)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    J. D. Houston and A. I. Carswell, Appl. Opt. 17, 614, (1978)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    S. R. Pal and A. I. Carswell, J. Appl. Meteor. 16, 70, (1977)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    K. Sassen, J. Rech. Atmos. 11, 179 (1977)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    V. E. Derr, N.L. Abshire, R.E. Cupp and R. T. McNice J. Appl. Meteor. 15, 1200, (1976)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    C. M. R. Platt, N.L. Abshire and R. T. McNice, J. Appl. Meteor. 17, 1220, (1978)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Allan I. Carswell
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Physics and CRESSYork UniversityDownsviewCanada

Personalised recommendations