Objective Measurement of Refraction

  • Sami G. El Hage
  • Yves Le Grand
Part of the Springer Series in Optical Sciences book series (SSOS, volume 13)


This remarkable technique, invented by Cuignet (1873) and named by Chibret (1882), consists of observation of the direction of movement of light on the pupil of subject P when the clinician displaces the image of a light source on the retina. The movement appears in one direction or the other, according to whether the remotum of the subject is in front of or behind the clinician M. If the remotum coincides with the eye of M, the pupil of P becomes entirely illuminated. This neutral point permits determination of the refraction of P. This is sometimes called retinoscopy instead of skiascopy.


Test Object Test Pattern Retinal Image Neutral Point Corneal Reflection 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sami G. El Hage
    • 1
  • Yves Le Grand
    • 2
  1. 1.Eye Care AssociatesHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Director Du MuseeumParisFrance

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