• Sami G. El Hage
  • Yves Le Grand
Part of the Springer Series in Optical Sciences book series (SSOS, volume 13)


We shall now leave subjective methods for objective methods. In this case, a practitioner looks into the subject’s eye. The ophthalmoscope is essentially a qualitative device for examination. It completes the biomicroscope. Although the slit lamp is used to observe the cornea, the crystalline lens, and the anterior third of the vitreous humor, the ophthalmoscope is used mostly for the study of the deep regions of the eye—essentially the retina. This is the fundamental tool of the practitioner. By several modifications that we shall study in the following chapter, the ophthalmoscope can be changed into an optometer, thus permitting objective measurement of the subject’s refraction.


Vitreous Humor Crystalline Lens Sharp Image Magnify Glass Corneal Reflection 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sami G. El Hage
    • 1
  • Yves Le Grand
    • 2
  1. 1.Eye Care AssociatesHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Director Du MuseeumParisFrance

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