Anomalies of Binocular Movements

  • Sami G. El Hage
  • Yves Le Grand
Part of the Springer Series in Optical Sciences book series (SSOS, volume 13)


When all of the extrinsic muscles are completely relaxed by suppression of nervous excitation, the eyes take a position of equilibrium by action of various forces or pressures that are exerted on them. This position of anatomical rest is observed only in a cadaver, or as a result of paralysis. The lines of vision then diverge (their divergence angle can be as much as 10°), which is explained by the disposition of the orbits.


Retinal Image Binocular Vision Divergent Strabismus Extrinsic Muscle Luminous Line 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sami G. El Hage
    • 1
  • Yves Le Grand
    • 2
  1. 1.Eye Care AssociatesHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Director Du MuseeumParisFrance

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