The Orbit and Its Muscles

  • Sami G. El Hage
  • Yves Le Grand
Part of the Springer Series in Optical Sciences book series (SSOS, volume 13)


Until now, we have supposed the eye to be at rest and that the optical axis of the eye coincides with that of the corrective lens, thus forming a well-centered optical system. Many animals, for instance the batrachians, some reptiles, even some birds and some small mammals have eyes that do not move inside the orbit. In contrast, the human eye is very mobile. Its continuous movements attempt to project on the fovea the image of objects that have attracted its attention by their presence in the periphery of the visual field. Kepler (1604) was the first to suggest the importance of these movements, whether the eye was placed behind an optical instrument or not. Behind a corrective lens, the eye can use any portion of the surface of the lens and the total eye-lens system is no longer a centered system.


Lacrimal Gland Rectus Muscle Sebaceous Gland Extraocular Muscle Lateral Rectus 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • Sami G. El Hage
    • 1
  • Yves Le Grand
    • 2
  1. 1.Eye Care AssociatesHoustonUSA
  2. 2.Director Du MuseeumParisFrance

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