On the Validity of the Judd-Ofelt Theory for Two-Photon Absorption in the Rare-Earths

  • M. Dagenais
  • M. Downer
  • R. Neumann
  • N. Bloembergen
Conference paper
Part of the Springer Series in Optical Sciences book series (SSOS, volume 30)


The one-photon absorption theory of JUDD and OFELT[1] has been rather succesfui in describing the oscillator strength of many forced electric-dipole f-f transitions in the trivalent rare-earths.[2,3] Such a success has very often been taken as a vindication of all the assumptions behind the Judd-Ofelt theory when really it shows only that the formalism of representing the intensity of an f-f transition by the sum of phenomenological parameters multiplied by the squares of tabulated reduced matrix elements U(λ)(λ = 2, 4, 6) is valid. There are cases where the Judd-Ofelt theory of one-photon absorption does not lead to accurate prediction Some well-known examples are given by the hypersensitive transitions.[2] These transitions are characterized by large values of U(2) matrix elements and are in general rather sensitive to the environment of the lanthanide ions. Since the Judd-Ofelt theory has also its weak points, it is very important to design new experiments to pinpoint its limitations. We would like to report here on a completely new test of the Judd-Ofelt theory. It is based on a theoretical calculation of AXE[4]on two-photon absorption in the rare-earths. His work is a direct extension of the Judd-Ofelt theory for one-photon absorption to two-photon absorption. The theoretical predictions on relative two-photon absorption cross-sections are even simpler and involve only the U(2) reduced matrix elements. It should be noted here that both the Axe and the Judd-Ofelt theories ignore the band character of the 5d states. In our work, we have observed direct two-photon f-f transitions in the Gd3+ ions in a LaF3 host, using a CW linearly polarized laser beam of about 100 mW power.

Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of the experimental arrangement


Line Strength Reduce Matrix Element Polarize Laser Beam Hypersensitive Transition Absorption Theory 
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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. Dagenais
    • 1
    • 2
  • M. Downer
    • 2
  • R. Neumann
    • 2
  • N. Bloembergen
    • 2
  1. 1.Advance Technology LaboratoryGTE LaboratoriesWalthamUSA
  2. 2.G. McKay LaboratoryHarvard UniversityCambridgeUSA

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