Electron Optics

  • Akira Tonomura
Part of the Springer Series in Optical Sciences book series (SSOS, volume 70)


This chapter briefly introduces electron optics, emphasizing those aspects that are important for holography.


Electron Beam Wave Packet Coherence Length Spatial Coherence Energy Spread 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 3.1
    L. Reimer: Transmission Electron Microscopy, 4th edn., Springer Ser. Opt. Sci., Vol. 36 ( Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1997 )Google Scholar
  2. 3.2
    T. Hibi: Pointed filaments I. Its production and its application. J. Electron Microsc. 4, 10 (1956)Google Scholar
  3. 3.3
    A.N. Broers: Some experimental and estimated characteristics of the lanthanum hexaboride rod cathode electron gun. J. Sci. Instrum. 2, 273 (1969)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 3.4
    A.V. Crewe, D.N. Eggenberger, D.N. Wall, L.M. Welter: Electron gun using a field emission source. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 39, 576 (1968)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 3.5
    P. W. Hawkes (ed.): Magnetic Electron Lenses, Topics Curr. Phys., Vol. 18 ( Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg 1982 )Google Scholar
  6. 3.6
    G. Möllenstedt, H. Düker: Beobachtungen and Messungen an Biprisma-Interferenzen mit Elektronenwellen. Z. Phys. 145, 377 (1956)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 3.7
    T. Hibi, K. Yada: Electron interference microscopy, in Principles and Techniques of Electron Microscopy, Vol. 6, ed. by M.A. Hayat ( Van Nostrand, New York 1976 ) pp. 312–343Google Scholar
  8. 3.8
    G. Matteucci: On the use of a Wollaston wire in a Möllenstedt-Düker electron biprism. Microsc. etSpectrosc. Electronique 2, 69 (1978)Google Scholar
  9. 3.9
    A. Tonomura, J. Endo, T. Matsuda, T. Kawasaki, H. Ezawa: Demonstration of single-electron buildup of an interference pattern. Am. J. Phys. 57, 117 (1989)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 3.10
    P.W. Hawkes: Coherence in electron optics, in Adv. Opt. and Electron Microsc. 7, 101–184 ( Academic, London 1978 )Google Scholar
  11. 3.11
    H. Boersch: Experimentelle Bestimmung der Energieverteilung in thermisch ausgelösten Elektronenstrahlen. Z. Phys. 139, 115 (1954)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 3.12
    G. Möllenstedt, G. Wohland: Direct interferometric measurement of the coherence length of an electron wave packet using a Wien filter. Proc. Eur. Cong. Electron Microscopy (The Hague 1980) ed. by P. Brederoo, J. Van Landuyt (7th Europ. Congr. on Electron Microscopy Foundation, Leiden 1980) Vol. 1, pp. 28–29Google Scholar
  13. 3.13
    H. Schmid: Coherence length measurement by producing extremely high phase shifts. Proc. Europ. Congr. Electron Microscopy, Budapest, 1984, ed. by A. Csanady, P. Rohlich, D. Szabo (Program Committee, Budapest 1984) Vol. 1, pp. 285–286Google Scholar
  14. 3.14
    M. Nicklaus, F. Hasselbach: Wien filter: A wave-packet-shifting device for restoring longitudinal coherence in charged-matter-wave interferometers. Phys. Rev. A 48, 152 (1993)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Akira Tonomura
    • 1
  1. 1.Advanced Research LaboratoryHitachi, Ltd.SaitamaJapan

Personalised recommendations