‚Participation’ in Development Thinking — Coming to Grips with a Truism and its Critiques

  • Uta Berghöfer
  • Augustin Berghöfer
Part of the Environmental Science and Engineering book series (ESE)


Political Participation Participatory Process Participatory Action Research Deliberative Democracy Participatory Rural Appraisal 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Agrawal, A., Gibson, C.C. (1999). Enchantment and Disenchantment: The Role of Community in Natural Resource Conservation. World Development 27(4), 629–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arnstein, S.R. (1969). A ladder of citizen participation. Journal of the American Institute of Planners, 216–224Google Scholar
  3. Berkes, F., Folke, C. (1998). Linking social and ecological systems. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  4. Blaikie, P. (1999). A Review of Political Ecology. Issues, Epistemology and Analytical Narratives. Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftsgeographie 43(3–4), 131–147Google Scholar
  5. Borrini-Feyerabend, G., Pimbert, M., Farvar, M.T., Kothari, A., Renard, Y. (2004). Sharing power. Learning-by-doing in co-management of natural resources throughout the world. IIED and IUCN/ CEESP/ CMWG, Cenesta, TehranGoogle Scholar
  6. Brechin, S.R., Wilshusen, P.R., Fortwangler, C.L., West, P.C. (2003). Contested nature. Promoting international biodiversity with social justice in the twenty first century. State University of New York Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  7. Bryant, R.L. (1998). Power, knowledge and political ecology in the third world: a Review. Progress in Physical Geography 22(1), 79–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bryant, R.L. (1999). A Political Ecology for Developing Countries? Progress and Paradox in the Evolution of a Research Field. Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftsgeographie 43(3–4), 148–157Google Scholar
  9. Bryant, R.L., Bailey, S. (1997). Third World Political Ecology. Routledge, LondonGoogle Scholar
  10. Chambers, R. (1994a). The Origins and Practice of Participatory Rural Appraisal. World Development 22(7), 953–969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Chambers, R. (1994b). Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA): Analysis of Experience. World Development 22(9), 1253–1268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Chambers, R. (1994c). Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA): Challenges, Potentials and Paradigm. World Development 22(10), 1437–1454CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Chambers, R. (1997). Whose reality counts? Putting the first last. ITDG Publishing, LondonGoogle Scholar
  14. Checkland, P., Scholes, J. (1991). Soft Systems Method in Action. John Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  15. Cleaver, F. (2001). Institutions, Agency and the Limitations of Participatory Approaches to Development. In: Cooke, B., Kothari, U. (eds). Participation: The New Tyranny? Zed Books, London, New York, 36–55Google Scholar
  16. Cleaver, F. (2000). Moral Ecological Rationality, Institutions and the Management of Common Property Resources. Development and Change 31, 361–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Cohen, J.M., Uphoff, N.T. (1980). Participation’s place in rural development: seeking clarity through specifity. World Development 8, 213–235CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cooke, B., Kothari, U. (2001). Participation: The New Tyranny? Zed Books, London, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  19. Cornwall, A. (2000a). Beneficiary, Consumer, Citizen: Perspectives on Participation for Poverty Reduction. SIDA studies No. 2, Gothenburg, URL:, [June 2006]Google Scholar
  20. Cornwall, A. (2000b). Making a difference? Gender and participatory development. Discussion Paper 378, IDS (Institute of Development Studies), Brighton, URL:, [June 2006]Google Scholar
  21. Cornwall, A. (2003). Whose voices? Whose choices? Reflections on Gender and Participatory Development. World Development 31(8), 1325–1342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Craig, D., Porter, D. (1997). Framing participation: development projects, professionals, and organisations. Development in Practice 7(3), 229–236CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. DAC/OECD (1997). Evaluation of Programs Promoting Participatory Development and Good Governance. Synthesis Report of the Development Assistance Committee’s Expert Group on Evaluation. OECD, ParisGoogle Scholar
  24. Dryzek, J.S. (1990). Discursive Democracy. Politics, Policy, and Political Science. (Reprint 1999). Cambridge University Press, CambrigdeGoogle Scholar
  25. Easterly, W. (2002). The Cartel of Good Intentions — Bureaucracy versus Markets in Foreign Aid. Center for Global Development. Working paper No. 4. URL:, [June 2006]Google Scholar
  26. Escobar, A. (1984). Discourse and power in development: Michel Foucault and the relevance of his work to the Third World. Alternatives 10, 377–400Google Scholar
  27. Escobar, A. (1995). Encountering Development. The Making and Unmaking of the Third World. Princeton University Press, Princeton, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
  28. Fals-Borda, O., Rahman, M.A. (1991). Action and knowledge: breaking the monopoly with participatory action research. ITDG Publishing, New York, LondonGoogle Scholar
  29. Francis, P. (2001). Participatory Development at the World Bank: The Primacy of Process. In: Cooke, B., Kothari, U. (eds). Participation: The New Tyranny? Zed Books, London, New York, 72–87Google Scholar
  30. Freire, P. (2000). The Pedagogy of the Oppressed. 30th Anniversary Edition. Continuum International Publishing Group, New York. (First Edition 1970: Pedagogía del oprimido)Google Scholar
  31. Giddens, A. (1984). Die Konstitution der Gesellschaft: Grundzüge einer Theorie der Strukturierung. Frankfurt am MainGoogle Scholar
  32. Guijt, I., Shah, M.K. (1998). Waking up to power, conflict and process. In: Guijt, I., Shah, M.K. (eds). The myth of community. Gender issues in participatory development. ITDG Publishing, London, 1–23Google Scholar
  33. Habermas, J. (1984). The theory of communicative action. Vol. 1: Reason and the rationalisation of society. Boston (Original 1981: Theorie des kommunikativen Handelns, Bd.1: Handlungsrationalität und gesellschaftliche Rationalisierung, Bd. 2: Zur Kritik der funktionalistischen Vernunft. Suhrkamp, Frankfurt am Main)Google Scholar
  34. Hapgood, D. (1969). The Role of Popular Participation in Development. Report of a Conference on the Implementation of Title IX of the Foreign Assistance Act. CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  35. Hardin, G. (1968). The Tragedy of the Commons. Science 162, 1243–1248CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hartmann, F. (1998). Towards a Social Ecological Politics of Sustainability. In: Keil, D., Bell, D.V.J., Penz, P., Fawcett, L. (eds). Political Ecology. Global and Local. Routledge, London, New York, 336–351Google Scholar
  37. Hickey, S., Mohan, G. (2004). Participation: From Tyranny to Transformation? Exploring New Approaches to Participation. Zed Books, LondonGoogle Scholar
  38. Hickey, S., Mohan, G. (2005). Relocating Participation within a Radical Politics of Development. Development and Change 36(2), 237–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hildyard, N., Hegde, P., Wolvekamp, P., Reddy, S. (2001). Pluralism, Participation and Power: Joint Forest Management in India. In: Cooke, B., Kothari, U. (eds). Participation: The New Tyranny? Zed Books, London, New York, 56–71Google Scholar
  40. Hirschman, A.O. (1958). The Strategy of Economic Development. New HavenGoogle Scholar
  41. Jacobs, M. (1997). Environmental valuation, deliberative democracy and public decision-making institutions. In: Foster, J. (ed). Valuing Nature? Economics, Ethics and Environment. Routledge, London, New York, 211–231Google Scholar
  42. Kapoor, I. (2001). Towards participatory environmental management? Journal of Environmental Management 63, 269–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Kapoor, I. (2002a). Deliberative Democracy or Agonistic Pluralism? The Relevance of the Habermas-Mouffe Debate for Third World Politics. Alternatives 27, 459–487Google Scholar
  44. Kapoor, I. (2002b). The devil’s in the theory: a critical assessment of Robert Chambers’ work on participatory development. Third World Quarterly 23(1), 101–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Kapoor, I. (2005). Participatory Development, Complicity and Desire. Third World Quarterly 26(8), 1203–1220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Leeuwis, C. (2000). Reconceptualizing Participation for Sustainable Rural Development: Towards a Negotiation Approach. Development and Change 31, 931–959CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Mayoux, L. (1995). Beyond Naivety: Women, Gender Inequality and Participatory Development. Development and Change 26, 235–258Google Scholar
  48. McCracken, J., Pretty, J., Conway, G. (1988). An introduction to rapid rural appraisal for agricultural development. International Institute for Environment and Development, LondonGoogle Scholar
  49. McLain, R., Lee, R. (1996). Adaptive management: promises and pitfalls. Environmental Management 20, 437–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Mohan, G. (2001). Beyond Participation: Strategies for Deeper Empowerment. In: Cooke, B., Kothari, U. (eds). Participation: The New Tyranny? Zed Books, London, New York, 153–167Google Scholar
  51. Mohan, G., Stokke, K. (2000). Participatory development and empowerment: the danger of localism. Third World Quarterly 21(2), 247–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Mosse, D. (1994). Authority, Gender and Knowledge: Theoretical Reflections on the Practice of Participatory Rural Appraisal. Development and Change 25, 497–526CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Nelson, N., Wright, S. (1995). Participation and power. In: Nelson, N., Wright, S. (eds). Power and Participatory Development. ITDG Publishing, London, 1–18Google Scholar
  54. Nohlen, D., Nuscheler, F. (1993). Was heißt Entwicklung? In: Nohlen, D., Nuscheler, F. (eds). Handbuch der Dritten Welt, Vol. 1. Dietz, BonnGoogle Scholar
  55. Nustad, K.G. (2001). Development: the devil we know? Third World Quarterly 22(4), 479–489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Oakley, P. (1991). Projects with People: The Practice of Participation in Rural Development. International Labour Organisation (ILO), GenevaGoogle Scholar
  57. O’Riordan, T., Stoll-Kleemann, S. (2002). Deliberative democracy and participatory biodiversity. In: O’Riordan, T., Stoll-Kleemann, S. (eds). Biodiversity, Sustainability and Human Communities. Protecting beyond the Protected. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 87–112Google Scholar
  58. Owens, S. (2000). ‘Engaging the public’: information and deliberation in environmental policy. Environment and Planning (A) 32, 1141–1148CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Peet, R., Watts, M. (1996). Liberation ecologies. Environment, development, social movements. Routledge, London, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  60. Pimbert, M.P., Pretty, J.N. (1995). Parks, People and Professionals: Putting ‘Participation’ into Protected Area Management. UNRISD Discussion Paper No. 57, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  61. Pretty, J.N. (1995). Participatory learning for sustainable agriculture. World Development 23(8), 1247–1263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rahnema, M. (1992). Participation. In: Sachs, W. (ed). The Development Dictionary. A Guide to Knowledge as Power. Zed Books, London, New Jersey, 116–131Google Scholar
  63. Reusse, E. (1999). Interventionist Paradigms and the Ills of Aid. Bochumer Schriften zur Entwicklungsforschung und Entwicklungspolitik, Vol. 44. MünchenGoogle Scholar
  64. Ribot, J.C. (2002). Democratic Decentralization of Natural Resources. Institutionalizing Popular Participation. World Resource Institute, Washington. URL:, [June 2006]Google Scholar
  65. Rist, G. (1997). The History of Development: From Western Origins to Global Faith. Zed Book, LondonGoogle Scholar
  66. Ross, E.B. (1998). The Malthus Factor: Poverty, Politics and Population in Capitalist Development. Zed Books, LondonGoogle Scholar
  67. Rostow, W.W. (1962). The Stages of Economic Growth. CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  68. Sanderson, I. (no date). Participation and Democratic Renewal: from “instrumental” to “communicative rationality”? Policy and Politics 27(3), 325–341Google Scholar
  69. Schneider, H., Libercier, M.-H. (1994). Concepts, Issues and Experiences for Building up Participation. In: Participatory Development — from Advocacy to Action. OECD Development Centre, ParisGoogle Scholar
  70. Sommer, J. (2001). Empowering the Oppressed-Grassroots Advocacy Movements in India. Sage Publications Ltd, New DelhiGoogle Scholar
  71. Stiglitz, J.E. (2002). Participation and Development: Perspectives from the Comprehensive Development Paradigm. Review of Development Economics 6(2), 163–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Taylor, H. (2001). Insights into Participation from Critical Management and Labour Process Perspectives. In: Cooke, B., Kothari, U. (eds). Participation: The New Tyranny? Zed Books, London, New York, 122–138Google Scholar
  73. Visvanathan, S. (1991). Mrs. Brundland’s Disenchanted Cosmos. Alternatives 16(3), 377–384Google Scholar
  74. Walters, C. (1986). Adaptive management of renewable resources. Macmillan, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  75. Webler, T., Tuler, S., Krueger, R. (2001). What Is a Good Public Participation Process? Five Perspectives from the Public. Environmental Management 27(3), 435–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Western, D., Wright, R.M. (1994). Natural Connections. Perspectives in Community-based conservation. Island Press, Washington D.C. Covelo, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  77. White, S.C. (1996). Depoliticising development: the uses and abuses of participation. Development in Practice 6(1), 6–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. World Bank (1996). The World Bank Participation Sourcebook. Washington. URL:, [June 2006]Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Uta Berghöfer
    • 1
  • Augustin Berghöfer
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Environmental Research (UFZ) Leipzig-HalleGermany
  2. 2.Fundación OmoraPuerto WilliamsChile

Personalised recommendations