Performance of Different Proxy Concepts in UMTS Networks

  • Marc C. Necker
  • Michael Scharf
  • Andreas Weber
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 3427)


It is well known that the large round trip time and the highly variable delay in a cellular network may degrade the performance of TCP. Many concepts have been proposed to improve this situation, including performance enhancing proxies (PEPs). One important class of PEPs are split connection proxies, which terminate a connection from a server in the Internet in a host close to the Radio Access Network (RAN) and establish a second connection towards the mobile User Equipment (UE). This connection splitting can be done either purely on the transport layer (TCP proxy) or on the application layer (HTTP proxy in the case of web traffic). While it is clear that an application layer proxy also infers the splitting of an underlying transport layer connection, the performance of applications may be essentially different for both approaches. In this paper, we first study the general impact of a split connection proxy on TCP bulk data transfer. We then focus on the case of web traffic and investigate the TCP connection behavior of the Mozilla web browser. Based on this, we study the performance of TCP and HTTP proxies in UMTS networks under different scenarios and for different HTTP configurations.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    Bakre, A., Badrinath, B.R.: I-TCP: Indirect TCP for Mobile Hosts. In: Proc. Proc. 15th Int’l. Conf. on Distr. Comp. Sys. (May 1995)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Balakrishnan, H., Seshan, S., Katz, R.H.: Improving Reliable Transport and Handoff Performance in Cellular Wireless Networks. Wireless Networks 1(4), 469–481 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Border, J., Kojo, M., Griner, J., Montenegro, G., Shelby, Z.: Performance Enhancing Proxies Intended to Mitigate Link-Related Degradations. RFC 3135 (June 2001)Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Brown, K., Singh, S.: M-TCP: TCP for Mobile Cellular Networks. ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communications Review 27(5), 19–43 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Chakravorty, R., Pratt, I.: Rajiv Chakravorty and Ian Pratt, WWW Performance over GPRS. In: Proc. IEEE MWCN 2002, Stockholm, Sweden (September 2002)Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Chakravorty, R., Cartwright, J., Pratt, I.: Practical Experience With TCP over GPRS. In: Proc. IEEE GLOBECOM (November 2002)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Chan, M.C., Ramjee, R.: TCP/IP Performance over 3G Wireless Links with Rate and Delay Variation. In: Proc. ACM MobiCom 2002 (September 2002)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Fielding, R., Gettys, J., Mogul, J., Frystyk, H., Masinter, L., Leach, P., Berners- Lee, T.: Hypertext Transfer Protocol – HTTP/1.1. RFC 2616Google Scholar
  9. 9.
  10. 10.
  11. 11. (September 2004)
  12. 12.
    Inamura, H., Montenegro, G., Ludwig, R., Gurtov, A., Khafizov, F.: TCP over second (2.5G) and third (3G) generation wireless networks. RFC 3481 (February 2003)Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Meyer, M., Sachs, J., Holzke, M.: Performance Evaluation of a TCP Proxy in WCDMA Networks. IEEE Wireless Communications 10(5), 70–79 (2003)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Mutter, A., Necker, M.C., Lück, S.: IP-Packet Service Time Distributions in UMTS Radio Access Networks. In: Proc. EUNICE 2004, Tampere, Finland (2004)Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Paxson, V.: End-to-End Internet Packet Dynamics. Trans. on Networking 7(3), 277–292 (1999)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Reiser, S.: Development and Implementation of an Emulation Library. Project Report, University of Stuttgart, IKR (September 2004)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Scharf, M., Necker, M.C., Gloss, B.: The Sensitivity of TCP to Sudden Delay Variations in Mobile Networks. In: Mitrou, N.M., Kontovasilis, K., Rouskas, G.N., Iliadis, I., Merakos, L. (eds.) NETWORKING 2004. LNCS, vol. 3042, pp. 76–87. Springer, Heidelberg (2004)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Schüler, J., Gruhl, S., Schwabe, T., Schwiegel, M.: Performance Improvements for TCP in Mobile Networks with high Packet Delay Variations. In: Proc. Int. Teletraffic Congress (ITC-17) (September 2001)Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Stevens, W.R.: TCP/IP Illustrated, vol. 1. Addison-Wesley, Reading (1994)zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yavatkar, R., Bhagawat, N.: Improving End-to-End-Performance of TCP over Mobile Internetworks. In: Proc. IEEE Workshop on Mobile Computing Systems and Applications (December 1994)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marc C. Necker
    • 1
  • Michael Scharf
    • 1
  • Andreas Weber
    • 2
  1. 1.Institute of Communication Networks and Computer EngineeringUniversity of StuttgartStuttgart
  2. 2.Alcatel SEL AG, Research and InnovationStuttgart

Personalised recommendations